A potassium hydroxide KOH wet mount preparation is a simple, and sensitive, method for diagnosis. Advanced Search. Blindness and visual impairment in southern Malawi. Bull WHO ; Chirambo MC. Causes of blindness among students in blind school institutions in a developing country.
- Cutaneous Fungal Infections.
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- Fungal infections in burns: Diagnosis and management.
- Onychomycosis: Current Trends in Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician.
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Br J Ophthalmol ; Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central Tanzania. Int Ophthalmol ; Epidemiology of blindness in Nepal. Prevalence and causes of blindness in rural Bangladesh. Ind J Med Res ; Causes of chilhood blindness in East Africa: results in pupils attending 17 school for the blind in Malawi, Kenya and Uganda. Ophthalmic Epidemiol ; Available data on blindness update Ophthalmic Epidemiology ; Spectrum of microbial keratitis in South Florida. Am J Ophthalmol ; Causes of suppurative keratitis in Ghana.
Suppurative keratitis in Bangladesh: the value of Gram stain in planning management. Suppurative corneal ulceration in Bangladesh. A study of cases examining the microbiological diagnosis, clinical and epidemiological features of bacterial and fungal keratitis. Aust NZ J Ophthalmol ; Epidemiology and aetiological diagnosis of corneal ulceration in Madurai, South India. The epidemiological features and laboratory results of fungal keratitis: A year review at a referral eye care center in south India.
Cornea ; Aetiological diagnosis of microbial keratitis in South India. Indian J Med Microbiol ; Leber T. Keratomycosis aspergillina als ursache von Hypopy on Keratitis. Arch Ophthalmol ; Thomas PA. Keratomycosis mycotic keratitis. In: Hay RJ, editor.
London: Bailliere, ;Vol 4, pp. Epidemiologic characteristics, predisposing factors, and etiologic diagnosis of corneal ulceration in Nepal. Suppurative keratitis in London. London, Asbell P, Stenson S. Ulcerative keratitis. Survey of 30 years laboratory experience. Corneal ulceration at an urban African hospital. Ormerod LD.erp.legacyrealties.com/frugal-isnt-cheap.php
Onychomycosis: Current Trends in Diagnosis and Treatment
Causation and management of microbial keratitis in subtropical Africa. Ophthalmology ; Efficacy of topical and systemic itraconazole as a broad-spectrum antifungal agents in mycotic corneal ulcer: A preliminary study. Indian J Ophthalmol ; Current perspectives in infectious keratitis.
Bennett JE. Diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill; Vol 1, pp O'Day DM. Fungal keratitis. Ocular infections and immunity. Louis: Mosby; Microbial keratitis: a study cases and review of the literature. Journal of Madras State Ophthalmic Association ; Spectrum of microbial keratitis in south India. The current status of Fusarium species in mycotic keratitis in south India. Ansons AM. Corneal ulceration caused by penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Corneal ulcer. In: Dutta LC, editor. Modern Ophthalmology.
Laboratory Diagnosis of Ocular Infections. Sharma S, Athmanathan. Diagnostic procedures in infectious keratitis. Diagnostic Procedures in Ophthalmology. Textbook of Microbiology. Madras: Orient Longman Ltd; Cooper BH. Taxonomy, classcification, and nomenclature of fungi. Manual of clinical microbiology.
Treatment of Fungal Skin Infections
Washington, D. C: American Society for Microbiology; Chander J, Sharma A. Prevalence of fungal corneal ulcers in Northern India. Infection ; Study of fungal Keratitis. Study of mycotic keratitis in Goa. Tinea Cruris: Tinea cruris, or jock itch , occurs on the medial and upper area of the thighs and groin area and is more common in males than in females. Differential diagnosis includes candidiasis, intertrigo, erythrasma, psoriasis, and seborrheic dermatitis. Tinea Capitis: Tinea capitis is also called ringworm of the scalp. The incidence of this form is not known; however, it occurs most frequently in children exposed through contact with other children or pets.
The endemic form, which is caused by Microsporum canis , is often spread by cats and dogs. Favus, which rarely occurs in the U. Black dot tinea capitis is often asymptomatic initially.
An erythematous, scaling patch on the scalp enlarges over time, and alopecia occurs. Kerion formation is due to an immune response to the fungus. Lymphadenopathy may occur with kerion. Gray patch tinea capitis presents as circular patches of alopecia with prominent scaling. Tinea capitis must be treated with systemic antifungal agents, since topicals cannot penetrate the hair shaft. Asymptomatic carriers of dermatophytes may be a source of reinfection. Sharing of fomites such as hats, combs, and brushes should be avoided.
Tinea Unguium: This disorder, also known as onychomycosis , is caused most frequently by dermatophytes, but nondermatophytes and Candida species also can cause it. Affected nails often become thick, rough, yellow, opaque, and brittle. Differential diagnosis includes psoriasis, eczema, lichen planus, and trauma. Tinea Incognito: Tinea incognito is a dermatophyte infection that is modified because of treatment with a corticosteroid.
Tinea incognito requires a thorough patient history and should be considered when a corticosteroid has been used to treat a rash that appeared to have cleared, but returned unresolved. Candida is part of normal body flora, but it is also a common cause of yeast infections. Risk factors include antibiotics, corticosteroids, diabetes, obesity, immunosuppression, and immunodeficiency. Common areas of infection are the mouth and genital region. Differential diagnosis includes tinea corporis.
Topical Therapy: Tinea pedis, tinea corporis, and tinea cruris generally respond well to topical therapy. Rare cases of mild skin irritation, burning, itching, or dryness have been reported. Multiple combination products incorporating an antifungal plus a corticosteroid are available. Combination therapy with antifungals and corticosteroids is not currently recommended in clinical guidelines. Patient adherence may be affected by the product chosen. Oral Therapy: Oral therapy can be recommended for the treatment of tinea pedis, tinea corporis, and tinea cruris if the infection is extensive, severe, or recalcitrant.
However, tinea capitis must be treated with oral antifungal therapy, since topical agents do not penetrate the hair shaft, and tinea unguium responds better to oral therapy than to topical treatment. There are currently two FDA-approved pediatric treatment options for tinea capitis: griseofulvin and terbinafine. Manufacturer labeling recommends 4 to 6 weeks, but other sources advise 6 to 12 weeks, and possibly up to 16 weeks. There are several different oral treatment approaches for onychomycosis.
Oral griseofulvin, terbinafine, itraconazole, or fluconazole may be useful, but dosages and treatment duration vary according to the location of the infection e. Fluconazole is not approved for the treatment of onychomycosis, but pulse dosing may be used off-label mg once a week for months for fingernails or months for toenails. Some researchers believe that oral antifungal therapy should be continued past the recommended treatment duration, at least until the infected nail is replaced by normal growth; however, this may take up to 9 to 12 months.
The use of the oral antifungal agents is not without side effects or significant drug interactions. Notable drug interactions with griseofulvin include barbiturates, alcohol, cyclosporine, oral contraceptives, aspirin, and warfarin. Cont Lens Anterior Eye. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of fungal keratitis in the United States, a multicenter study.
Diagnosis and Management of Tinea Infections - American Family Physician
- People at Risk for Fungal Eye Infections | Types of Diseases | Fungal Diseases | CDC;
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- Tinea Corporis, Tinea Cruris, and Tinea Pedis.
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- Ashen Winter (Ashfall, Book 2).
- Onychomycosis: Current Trends in Diagnosis and Treatment - American Family Physician?
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