Radford Co. Ware 1 William B. Tuthill 1 William Adam 1 Wilbur J. Page 1 of 3 Showing 1 - 48 of Next. Late Victorian Interiors and Dover Architecture Series William B. Tuthill Author Early Domestic Architecture Dover Architecture Series J. Frederick Kelly Author Elegant Small Homes of the Plantation Houses and Frazer Smith Author The Most Popular Homes of the Dover Architecture Series William A.
Radford Author Daniel D. Reiff Author of introduction, etc. American Country Houses of Dover Architecture Series A. Lewis Author Victorian Brick and Victorian Woodturnings and Author The Architectural Plates from Georgian Architectural Designs for Street Fronts, This may mean that a group of houses will have an internal street or square for pedestrians only, so that even if cars approach every single house, there will still be a part of the whole community that brings the residents together, around a common playground, a common garden or nursery, etc. The same principle suggests that buildings be arranged around a common courtyard or around a series of courtyards where there is no access for automobiles.
This would provide a continuum of human space from room to house to courtyard, paths, gardens, and squares, a continuum big enough for the creation of real architectural space, where architecture is not limited to walls and elevations but to the broadest possible conception of space for man. Thus, the roots of the new architecture are to be found in the entire range of architecture that preceded the nineteenth century.
Such an architecture is going to be urban in character and human in content and will utilize a standardized technology. In this way architecture will become more consistent in expression and tend toward a new ecumenical form. The ecumenical qualities of architecture in the past were rooted in common responses to natural conditions; now they are reinforced by the participation of architects in what is gradually coming to be a world society. The direction of the road toward such solutions is discernible, but the road itself is not yet open.
A hard and long effort will be required of all those concerned, an effort to define the subject and a return to the proper concern of architecture: construction. Our only hope is to become good masons, so that we can expect some master masons architects to rise from among us. And we must try to abandon the subjective for the sake of the objective approach. If we achieve these aims, it is possible that in a few generations humanity may pass from the completely rational-utilitarian architecture— on which it must now concentrate—to a new humanistic, monumental architecture and thus a new architectural style.
See also the articles listed under Art. Boyd, Andrew C. Branner, Robert Gothic Architecture. New York : Braziller. Cresswell, Keppel A. Baltimore: Penguin. Disselhoff, Hans D. New York : Crown. Doxiadis, Constantinos A.
Princeton Univ. New York: Harper. Volume 2: The Beginnings of Architecture. New York: Pantheon. Hitchcock, Henry R. Hudnut, Joseph Architecture and the Spirit of Man. New York: Praeger. Macdonald, William L. New York: Braziller. Morrison, Hugh S. New York: Oxford Univ. New York: Dover. New York: Harcourt. Paine, Robert T. Rider, Bertha C. Chicago: Argonaut. Sadler, Arthur L. Rutland, Vt. Scully, Vincent J. Smith, George E. Cleveland: World. London: Tiranti. Wu, Nelson I. The monumental inventions of early modern European architecture still mark the modern built environment.
Vast boulevards and formal gardens focusing on public buildings denote the capital city everywhere. Domes dominate the skyline in Rome , London, and Washington.
Uniform palaces and house facades define the squares of Paris and London, the canals of Amsterdam and St. Churches modeled on imperial Roman baths and basilicas seem to reach outwards, with spectacular baroque facades and multiple columns extending into public space, like the twin columns inspired by Trajan 's Column in Rome of Vienna 's Karlskirche Fischer von Erlach, — , or the colonnades that define the piazza of St.
Peter's in Rome Gian Lorenzo Bernini , — The countryside, too, is transformed by villas and great houses in their landscaped grounds, and in the most famous case, Versailles Louis Levau and J. Mansart, — , the out-of-town retreat became the capital of an absolute monarch. The language of all these buildings is classical, using the columns, arches, cornices, vaults, and triangular pediments still visible in the ruins of ancient Rome, integrating them according to the ancient treatise of Vitruvius , and in some cases directly imitating the few ancient buildings that survived, such as the Pantheon and the Colosseum.
But this language was transformed in several ways, going beyond the accomplishments of the Renaissance. In its baroque form, space becomes more complex, and surfaces more agitated and ornate; straight moldings and flat walls curve and break apart, columns spiral, circles turn into ovals, ceilings dissolve into vast trompe l'oeil paintings that seem open to heaven, and solid ornament imitates the movement of angels or the sudden burst of light.
Secular buildings undergo the same transformation, especially in their ceremonial staircases and uniform suites of reception rooms that create the impression of infinite power. The best of these designs is orderly and monumental rather than capricious or excessive, yet periodically architects reacted against the baroque, instigating a calmer and more rational classicism. A well-known example is Palladianism, a revival of the late Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio — that came to dominate English country house design in the eighteenth century in reaction to the ornate formality of Versailles and its English baroque rival, John Vanbrugh's Blenheim — Individual buildings and urban spaces conveyed a powerful message of confidence and control through new forms and crystalline geometry even when they were not very large.
Peter's, created a stir among visitors and critics who praised its curved facade and oval dome — or execrated them in equal measure. Sant' Ivo — , Borromini's Star of David — shaped chapel for the University of Rome, dazzled with its breathless spiral tower that altered the role of the adjacent Pantheon's dome.
Pietro da Cortona's — facade for Santa Maria della Pace — in Rome applied theatricality to urban design, placing a lavishly columned and curved portico in a small space that caught unprepared visitors by surprise. Countering these residential "squares" were the public spaces of Rome, such as Piazza Navona Four Rivers fountain by Bernini, — , the Spanish Steps Francesco de Sanctis, — , and the Trevi fountain Nicola Salvi, , each animated by generous displays of statuary, water, terraces, and views.
This festive quality of the best early modern urban design was enhanced with additional ornaments, including innumerable triumphal arches, imprinting the city with commemorative meaning. The innovations of the Italian Renaissance provided an ample foundation for the developments in architecture of the late sixteenth, the seventeenth, and the first half of the eighteenth centuries.
This inheritance was enhanced by the innovations of military defense, altered social and political organizations, and new forms of organized religion. Yet despite significant research in church form and extensive construction of places of worship, the period is marked by a secularization of architecture and urban space. The seventeenth century was an urban century, whose great cities — defined by the size of the population according to Giovanni Botero and the magnificence of their rulers — constituted its new wealth.
A large population can be attained through prosperity and security, and the architecture of the early modern era defined the prosperity of the social order and ensured its safety in the face of enemies.
Distinguished buildings, significant historical inheritance, artistic collections, and public safety attracted visitors to the great city. Thus consumerism and tourism developed in tandem with the early modern city and its architectural expression. This was accompanied by the widespread acceptance and application of the revived classical style of architecture in places outside the Italian peninsula — in France , England , the Netherlands , the Germanic states, Sweden , Russia , and the British colonies in the Americas.
A specifically Counter-Reformation style of classical architecture, emphasizing massive, ornate spaces and animated forms that propagate the faith by captivating the audience, was disseminated in the colonial towns of Spanish and Portuguese settlers, and in the missionary convents of religious orders in Central and South America , on the western coast of Africa, and on the Indian subcontinent. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, architecture became an instrument of state control and organization, not only signifying the cultural advantages of its sponsors as in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries but also assuming a defining role in the identity of nascent national states.
Thus secularized, classicized, and politicized, architecture transformed the early modern city. The architectural product continued to be defined through three types of design — church, palace, and public square — but each underwent extensive refinement and redefinition. We have cathedrals, parish churches, and monastic churches as before, though now competing for attention through the offer of urban amenities such as colonnades, fountains, and elaborately decorated facades, transformed by the worldly social agenda of the Counter-Reformation.
The open spaces of the city surrounded by this evolving set of buildings housing new functions and organized into streets and squares more or less geometrically defined and ordered became the principal sites of urban meaning. The definition of urban architecture was ultimately achieved through the enclosure of a city within a fortification belt walls, bastions, outworks, and gateways that effectively created the separation between town and country and allowed each to develop firm boundaries. This defining separation was the major contribution of military urbanism. Other military-influenced architectural features were the triumphal arch , the pentagonal citadel, the wide, uniformly framed straight boulevard, and the equestrian statue of the victorious ruler placed at the center of squares used for parades and festivities.
The pacification brought about by military architecture encouraged the development of the rural palace or agrarian villa. Palladio's urbane villas such as the Rotonda outside Vicenza, — , and the Villa Barbaro at Maser, — offered a residential type that resonates throughout early modern architecture. This new understanding of architecture, urbane even in its country houses, was promoted through the burgeoning medium of print: illustrated books, single sheets, and specialized studies turned the newly defined city and its buildings into a subject of study, and were collected by all those with pretensions to learning: for the first time in the history of Western civilization, the achievements of architects could be appreciated, studied, and imitated without leaving home.
Nonetheless, this graphic documentation stimulated travel in the pursuit of architectural education, making Rome — then Paris, London, and Amsterdam — the destinations for nonreligious pilgrimage. The issues involved in large building operations — budget, conflicting interests of patrons, and variable design talents of architects — can best be illustrated by the seemingly interminable reconstruction of St. Peter's in Rome. Its dome, completed Michelangelo and Giacomo della Porta , after nearly a century of indecision and uncertainty, the much desired Renaissance plan of the ideal church as centrally planned — promoted by Bramante and Michelangelo c.
The extension of the church by Carlo Maderno — , and the immense facade designed by him, completed the body of the church proper. This signified the coming importance of building elevations in a development that has been labeled facadism — countering the Renaissance's failure to complete the public front of important religious and secular buildings the facade of San Lorenzo in Florence, for example, whose interior includes Michelangelo's Medicean library and chapel, remains unclad. The elliptical space before St. Peter's, defined by a carefully planted forest of columns, was not completed until the late s by Bernini.
The area framed by the facade and colonnade, where pilgrims to Rome were taken to the bosom of the church and whose center was defined by the largest Egyptian obelisk in Rome, represented the epitome of baroque space. The placement of the obelisk under the direction of Domenico Fontana in marks an important achievement in the history of engineering, considered by architectural historians to be the most influential moment of early modern city planning and a spur to later developments.
Facadism then is a crucial element of the concern with the appearance of public space that dominates Western architectural design in the seventeenth century. Like Florence in the fifteenth century, Rome in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was an artistic hub of the highest order. The papal government with its huge numbers of retainers and accompanying families , the missionary orders that made their headquarters in the city, and the large numbers of pilgrims constituted the elements of a varied and rich patronage system that attracted the best artists to the city.
Milan and Naples , Rome's most important rivals in wealth and size of population, were dominated by the Spanish viceroys, whose cultural contributions were more modest; Spanish monarchs beginning with Philip II concentrated their architectural patronage on the remote palace-monastery El Escorial Juan de Herrera , — Architects came to work in Rome, but they also came to study, forming "national" groupings lodged among their compatriots in distinct parts of the multicultural city.
By the end of the seventeenth century the Italian tour, though highly recommended, was no longer a requirement for a successful career in architecture. Peter's without setting foot in the old city. Inigo Jones put his Italian experience to work designing the queen's house in Greenwich — , outside London , a royal villa that later became the centerpiece of Wren's naval hospital — , and the Whitehall Banqueting House — , which emulated the urban palaces of Palladio in Vicenza.
Although his buildings were few, he sowed the seeds of Palladianism, the single most significant classicizing movement in England, whose influence continued through the eighteenth century in the houses designed by John Wood in Bath and Lord Burlington, William Kent , and Robert Adam in the British countryside near London Chiswick, Syon and East Anglia Holkham Hall. The Dutch version of classicism turned Amsterdam into a Venice of the north and provided the stimulation for the design of St.
Russian neoclassicism in the later eighteenth century was leavened by the presence of both Charles Cameron and Giacomo Quarenghi, whose cool white and stripped-down temples and pavilions for the empress Catherine were rooted in the more recent archaeology of the mid-century. Architects at the French Academy in Rome made an inestimable contribution to neoclassicism: they measured and drew antiquities, offering the most accurately reproduced illustrations for those unwilling to travel.
By anatomizing antiquities, they acquired a familiarity with the classical forms that led to the transformation of this inheritance, stripping it of baroque accretions. Architecture in this period solved problems that had been researched for centuries: how to express the status and ambitions of the patron and how to connect the buildings' public and private functions.
Thus the formation of palace facades in Rome, Turin, Venice, Paris, and Vienna can be seen as billboards that explicate the position of their owners. This meant articulating the relation between the exterior the street or garden facade and the interior, which in turn must be divided into entry, passage, principal reception room, and private apartments. While palace and church elevations had been recognized as essential areas of relation between public and interior space and as carriers of meaning , the formal manipulation of these surfaces was determined by concerns for the appearance of dignity and sobriety.
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The baroque facade became strongly articulated and richly ornamented with the entire arsenal of architectural vocabulary available to designers. While the liveliness of church facades was meant to stimulate a Counter-Reformation participation, the facades of palaces became essential elements in the highly ritualized definition of power exchanges. The major architectural innovations — St. Peter's in Rome, Palladio's villas, the Louvre in Paris , and the palace at Versailles — soon acquired the authority earlier associated with ancient Roman and Greek buildings such as the Parthenon, the Pantheon, the Colosseum, and the ancient theater.
The new standards were serially emulated, though not always with distinguished results. Thus St. Versailles, itself distantly modeled on the Escorial, spawned numerous imitations in the German principalities and in Vienna, as well as in Sweden and Russia. Palladio's villa designs, capable of absorbing variations in scale, were the basis through Inigo Jones for innumerable British country houses, and for Thomas Jefferson 's influential Monticello.
Bernini's designs for the Louvre, and the realized version by Louis Le Vau and Claude Perrault , drew upon the Farnese palace in Rome, the grandest of Renaissance homes, and propagated countless urban houses, from Guarino Guarini 's Carignano palace — in Turin to Viennese town palaces of the eighteenth century. Ackerman, James S. Princeton, Blunt, Anthony. Art and Architecture of France to New Haven , First published in Botero, Giovanni.
Millon, Henry, ed. The Triumph of the Baroque: Architecture in Europe — Milan, Millon, Henry, and Vittorio Lampugnani, eds. New York , Payne, Alina. Cambridge, U. Pollak, Martha. Chicago , Rykwert, Joseph.
File:Colonnade du Louvre - Encyclopédie of Diderot, Architecture plate XV - Dover 1995 p14.jpg
The Classical Language of Architecture. London, Waddy, Patricia. New York and Cambridge, Mass. Wittkower, Rudolf. Art and Architecture of Italy, — The architecture and city planning of the countries of North Africa and the Middle East are steeped in a history that has been marked by the development of Arab and Islamic culture since the seventh century. The architectural and urban traditions generated by this culture produced a remarkable built environment — composed of beautiful monuments of the Islamic art — and spatial typologies.
Since the nineteenth century, this architectural inheritance has cohabited with and contrasted with a contemporary architecture that was produced on the one hand by an endogenous dynamics of "Westernization" developed during the Ottoman imperial period, and on the other hand by different forms of colonial domination mainly French and British. Since the independence of the region's countries, architecture has been the product of essentially two tendencies.
In the vernacular, "minor" architecture, age-old traditions rooted in the materials, climate, and social structure of the local environment mark buildings in both rural areas and in new urban districts, where the self-construction is encouraged. There, the population produces an architecture without architects, and old forms cohabit, harmoniously or in a disjointed way, with modern structures.
By contrast, in official, "major" architecture, buildings whose construction relied on governmental or institutional patronage have undergone a metamorphosis that has altered dramatically historical traditions and reflects the increasing impact of international styles and construction methods. In addition to this influence, during the last thirty years the rate of construction in this part of the world has been intense, so architectural development has been rapid and buildings production radically transformed. However, as Udo Kulter-mann explained in Contemporary Architecture in the Arab States, this "rapidity and gigantic dimension of the transformation caused problems, among them waste, inefficiency, and misstated priorities, [and] the focus of international architectural activity shifted from Europe and North America to the Arab states as the world elite of the architectural profession competed with each other and with the emerging generation of Arab architects" p.
In the contemporary architecture, the influence of the Islamic legacy and local traditions is apparent not only superficially, in building forms and ornaments; instead, it affects the very design process. It "became, as the Aga Khan said, an instinctive manner of expression for any architect designing anywhere in the Islamic world" The Aga Khan , , cited by Kultermann, p. Old principles that governed the organization of space and the Isalmic aesthetic are actualized according to modern building requirements and are reintroduced to satisfy the religious rules and the climate.
In addition, new buildings are least likely to complement the existing buildings so changes to the city environment are generally made house by house, block by block, and not by urban overhaul. If planned buildings are close to cities' historic districts, architects and governments build with care and sensitivity, but in cities' peripheries, they often propose buildings that do not correspond to the population's needs or lifestyles. Even before the establishment of colonial empires in the Middle East , economic decline had reduced the quantity and quality of official patronage of architecture.
Simultaneously, European styles influenced the building of European embassies and commercial concerns and the way that official patronage relied upon architects and builders who had traveled or studied in Europe, European publications on architecture, and changing tastes in Islamic courts. In the Ottoman Empire , for example, the Balyan family provided three generations of official architects for the sultans beginning in , producing mosques, palaces, and other official buildings that reflected a mixture of European styles.
European governments, banks, commercial trading enterprises, and missionary institutions began to erect buildings in the European style. French styles prevailed in Algeria and later in the Maghrib; the style of the Balyans and later the Italian architect Montani gained currency in the Ottoman capital of Constantinople now Istanbul ; in Egypt , Muhammad Ali r.
Elsewhere on the Mediterranean littoral, and to an extent in Iran , French, Italian, and British architectural ideas left their stamp on museums and government buildings. By the end of the nineteenth century, European architectural ideas had provoked reactions from Middle Eastern architects and from Europeans who were sensitive to local traditions. Moreover, as the neo-Islamic building style gained popularity in Europe in the nineteenth century, it began to appear in the Middle East as well.
In Egypt a substantial number of Islamic Revival buildings were erected by local and foreign architects in Cairo and in Alexandria; these used European construction methods and floor plans but were decorated with Islamic motifs. In the Ottoman Empire a revival of governmental patronage in the late nineteenth century led to an early-twentieth-century Ottoman Revival style, whose chief practitioners were the architects Kemalettin Bey and Mehmet Vedat, and to a new-Islamic style that drew its inspiration from Spain and the Maghrib, exemplified by the Valide Mosque by Montani, and by the mid-nineteenth-century neo-Marinid gateway to what is now Istanbul University.
In Casablanca, the Law Courts and other official buildings that were built under the French protectorate reflected an attempt to understand and to promote "appropriate" local styles.
Nationalist architecture in the Middle East emerged during the twentieth century. The Ottoman Revival under the Young Turks in the early twentieth century manifested a new Turkish nationalism and sparked a tradition reflected today in the neo-Ottoman contemporary buildings of Sedad Hakki Eldem, such as his many Bosporus villas yah and the massive central complex of Istanbul University.
Similar attention to the pre-Islamic past was seen in the architecture of Iran under the Pahlavis, where the monarchy stressed cultural continuity not only with the Safavid Islamic past but also with a Persian heritage stretching back to Cyrus the Great. The government of Reza Pahlavi spent vast sums on restoring monuments, especially those that had been built with earlier royal patronage, while largely adopting the modern international style in its new institutional buildings.
The regime's Islamic successor has produced no significant architecture that indicates its own political and religious agenda, mostly because of the country's economic decline and the demands of its war with Iraq. Morocco's independence from the French, gained in , led to a pronounced nationalism in architecture, first expressed in the tomb complex of Muhammad V in Rabat , and in the s in a series of laws that required that the construction budgets for all institutional and governmental buildings allot a substantial percentage of funds to strictly defined traditional Moroccan crafts.
In Egypt, by contrast, the revolution of the s led to a socialist government whose official architecture often imitated the monumental style popular in the Soviet Union , best exemplified in the massive and forbidding Central Government Building in Cairo. National revolutions thus developed architectural patronage that reflected their own ideologies. In a parallel though far less pronounced tendency, Egypt has sought pharaonic inspiration for building styles and public monuments. In Central Asia , Russia first pushed its Stalinist architectural agenda, then later espoused the Soviet version of modernism.
At the same time, the Soviet governments in Central Asia put significant effort into restoring Islamic monuments such as the giant mosque of Bibi Khanym in Samarkand , and religious monuments in Tashkent and Bukhara. Middle Eastern attempts to adapt modern Western architecture often conflicts with the desire to bring about a renaissance of traditional architecture, or to produce a modern Islamic architecture that can keep its distinctive local or regional style while drawing upon the best of the new technology. Beginning in an international jury composed of architects and others from the Islamic world, Europe, and the United States has periodically awarded prizes for contemporary Middle Eastern architecture that best reflects Islamic traditions and values combined with artistic distinction.
The honored styles have varied widely, from the neotraditionalist architecture of Hassan Fathy in Egypt, typified in his buildings for the Wissa Wassef Foundation in Harraniya, near Giza, to the technically and formally avant-garde water towers designed for Kuwait City by the Swedish firm VBB. In general, the juries have shown remarkable breadth of vision and have taken an inclusive and eclectic rather than ideological and purist approach to the enormous range of distinctive modern Middle Eastern architectural styles.
Awards have been given for domestic architecture, historical restoration, institutional buildings, adaptive reuse, and commercial buildings. The first awards were memorialized in in a publication edited by Renata Holod; subsequent years' awards, and other subjects of Middle Eastern architecture, have been featured in the periodical Mimar: Architecture in Development up to Three main issues confront governments, patrons, architects, and urban planners in the Middle East today. The first is how and whether there should be an ideology of architecture; the answer in Morocco has been an unequivocal yes, reflected in neotraditionalist building codes that emphasize traditional ornament and decorative crafts while utilizing modern technology to the fullest.
For example, the mosque of Hassan II in Casablanca thought of as a pendant to the impressive twelfth-century ruins of the Almohad mosque in Rabat , although constructed in classical Moroccan forms and proportions with classical decoration, is an outsized reinforced-concrete giant whose skyscraper minaret is surmounted by a huge laser that sends beams far into the sky. Its construction has been hailed for its Islamic symbolism and condemned for its extravagance during a time of financial difficulties. Similar ideology prevailed in the reconstruction of the two major pilgrimage shrines in Mecca and Medina by the Saudi government.
Although they greatly facilitate the comfort and ease if not the safety of vastly increased numbers of pilgrims, these structures, lavish in size and decoration and traditional in style, raise more questions than they answer about the future of Middle Eastern religious architecture. Examples of the opposite approach, which could be termed "creative pluralism," are found in Turkey and Tunisia , where many different styles, structures, and forms of decoration exist side by side in a creative mixture. The issue remains: Is appropriate architecture to consist of a traditional decorative veneer on what are essentially Western buildings in plan and construction, or is the new architecture of the Middle East going to be based from the ground up on the rich mosaic of social, environmental, and historical traditions?
In fact, with few exceptions, local vernacular architecture is disappearing, replaced by undistinguished modern structures or by an equally alien homogenized national traditionalism that often consists of little more than employing the arch solely as a decorative device on building surfaces.
The second issue is curricula in architectural schools and colleges. The dialectic between historicism and artistic creativity is as old as art itself, however, and these debates are bound to survive as an essential part of the creative process. The third issue is one that confronts architects and patrons everywhere. Even an examination of the record of the Aga Khan Awards demonstrates an impressive array of beautiful structures that are creative in design and impressive in sensitivity to tradition, but for the most part, whether they are private houses or public monuments, expensive to construct and affordable to few.
Whether architecture in the Middle East can fulfill its implicit role — to provide decent housing and urban environments for exploding populations while reflecting its national and local traditions and remaining affordable — is a dilemma that will not easily be resolved. The Aga Khan. Introduction of the Aga Khan Award for Architecture. Instanbul: Aga Khan Award for Architecture, Akbar, Jamel.
Singapore: Concept Media Pte Ltd. Evin, Ahmed. Architecture Education in the Islamic World.
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Singapore: Concept Media Pte. Faruqi, Ismail al-. Kuala Lumpur : Alif International, Holod, Renata, and Rastorfer, Darl, eds. New York : Aperture, Kultermann, Udo. Contemporary Architecture in Arab States. Renaissance of a Region. New York : McGraw-Hill, Sakr, Tarek Mohamed Refaat. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, Architecture is the art and science of building the human environment. Because that environment is meant to enclose, enhance, and shape human activity, architecture thus extends beyond abstract issues of formal geometrical design and structural science into a far broader social dimension.
Exactly when the conscious, deliberate shaping of the human environment began defies dating, since the earliest structures most likely were made of organic materials that quickly returned to earth. Archaeological evidence discovered near Marseille , France , however, revealed repeated construction of wood-framed dwellings dating back as far as , to , years ago, and several skin coverings and wooden house frames from 13, years ago were surprisingly preserved at a Chilean site called Monte Verde.
The well-known stone structures of megalithic Europe date to 6, years ago, but it is significant that these were almost universally built for ceremonial or religious purposes, while the construction of dwellings apparently still relied on vegetable and animal materials long since vanished. Hence, the first intentionally permanent architecture was shaped for the most fundamental of social communal purposes — to bring a sense of visible order to the cosmos and to provide a link to the dead.
Architecture is a decidedly social activity, for it involves the interactions of many individuals, beginning with the patron — individual, committee, or organization — who calls a building into being. At every step of this process, social exchanges, discussions, and negotiations are required to adjust the design to changing needs and costs. This multidisciplinary social process involves large numbers of people specializing in many occupations, such as drawing and computer design, materials acquisition, preparing written specifications, scheduling construction, arranging construction materials, assembling the prepared materials, and applying the interior finishes, among many others.
The plate captions have been translated but not the legends. To volunteer to translate the legends, please contact diderot-info umich. A, channel that furnishes water from the Montargis canal to the basin. B G, basin. B D, G H, couriers. E F, mill for fraying [the rags]. K L, mill for refining [the rags]. N N N, place where one sizes the paper.