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Kosten und Rendite. Auswahl und Beratung. Appendices for Tug Aircr. Evaluation of wastewater treatment processes. Approximate performance data for various wastewater treatment processes. Operational characteristics of various treatment processes. Capacity factors. Per capita sewage flows. Sewage characteristics. Soil and site factors that restrict mound systems. Correction factors for mounds on sloping sites.

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Sanitary Industrial Wastewater Coll Pumping Stns Force Mains Us Army Tm 5 814 2 1985

Percolation rates and design loading rates. Trickling filter plant upgrading techniques. Activated sludge plant upgrading techniques. Head allowances. Efficiencies of bar spacing.

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Flocculation tank design factors. Surface loading rates for primary settling tanks. Settling tank depths. Clarifier design overflow rates. Typical characteristics of domestic sewage sludge. Design data and information for trickling filter processes.

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Design recirculation rates for high-rate filters. Surface loading rates for secondary sedimentation tanks. Miscellaneous filter component design criteria. Wastewater treatment pond classifications. Typical application data for advanced wastewater treatment operations and processes. Performance parameters of microstrainers. Typical microscreen power and space requirements.

Typical multi-media designs.

Performance parameters for multi-media filtration. Mineral to phosphorous ratios for given removal efficiencies. Typical performance parameters for fixed growth denitrification. Mass loadings for designing thickeners. Air flotation parameters. Dosage of chemicals for various types of sludges. Advantages and disadvantages of belt filter presses.

Common design shortcomings of belt filter press installations. Area required for sludge drying beds. Advantages and disadvantages of solid bowl decanter centrifuges. Common design shortcomings of solid bowl decanter centrifuge installations. Advantages and disadvantages of filter presses. Common design shortcomings of filter presses. Aerobic digestion design parameters using air. Standard-rate anaerobic digester capacity design criteria. High-rate anaerobic digester capacity design criteria. Typical chlorine dosages required for sewage disinfection.

Chemical quantities required for dechlorination. Measurement devices. Table of discharge rates for Parshall flumes. Parshall flume velocities. Summary of closed-loop reactor design. Allowable lateral lengths. This manual provides general information, guidance, and criteria for the design of domestic wastewater treatment facilities at permanent Army and Air Force installations. Criteria presented in this manual are applicable to new and upgraded domestic wastewater treatment facilities located both in the United States and overseas.

This manual provides the information necessary to determine the sizes of wastewater treatment unit operations. Appendix A contains a list of references used in this document. A wastewater treatment plant should be designed to achieve Federal, State and local effluent quality standards stipulated in applicable discharge permits.

Specifically, the plant must be easy to operate and maintain, require few operating personnel, and need a minimum of energy to provide treatment. Plants should be capable of treating normal laundry wastes together with sanitary wastewater. Pretreatment of laundry wastes will not be considered except where such wastes might exceed 25 percent of the average daily wastewater flow, or as a resources conservation measure when feasible. In a design for the expansion of existing plants, criteria contained herein regarding flows and wastewater characteristics may be modified to conform to existing plant performance data if the plant has been in operation long enough to have established accurate data.

In a design for the expansion of existing treatment works or construction of new facilities, the designer may offer criteria on new treatment processes for consideration. Pollution control facilities will incorporate the latest proven technology in the field. Technology is considered proven when demonstrated successfully by a prototype plant treating similar wastewater under expected climatic conditions.

Treatment level obtained, and operational performance and maintenance records will have been adequately documented to verify the capability of the process. Location The major factors in the selection of suitable sites for treatment facilities include the following: topography; availability of a suitable discharge point; and maintenance of a reasonable distance from living quarters, working areas and public use areas of the proposed facilities, as reflected by the master plans.

The siting criteria for the water pollution control facility should consider State wellhead protection requirements for drinking water sources. In absence of a state requirement, a minimum distance of 1, feet should be maintained between a drinking water source and any proposed water pollution control facility. For on-site treatment systems, rainfall and soil characteristics are major criteria.

Plants of 50, gallons per day or less treatment capacity will be more than feet from the above facilities when this minimum distance will not result in unacceptable noise or odor levels. Larger plants, and wastewater treatment ponds regardless of size, will be more than one-quarter mile from such facilities.

See Ferguson, Cold climate. Exceptions to the feet restriction can be made for cold climate module complexes where the treatment system is a part of the module complex. However, sewage treatment works will not be located within the same module as living quarters. Septic tank systems. Standard septic tank systems with subsurface drain fields do not fall under the feet restriction. Distance reductions must not result in creation of unacceptable noise levels when plant equipment is in operation.

The request will state the special design features that support the waiver, including any pertinent supporting data. Unit processes, plant size, and prevailing wind and climatic conditions will be given. In addition, the elevation differentials in relation to prevailing winds, adjacent facilities and terrain will be fully described. Sufficient space must be allocated not only for suitable arrangement of the initial units and associated plant piping but also to accommodate future expansion.

Future expansion includes the provision of increased capacity for existing processes and the addition of new types of units known to be required for upgrading redesigned systems to the future requirements of more stringent stream and effluent standards. The site will be selected so that an all-weather road is available or can be provided for access to the plant. Available rail sidings will also be utilized when practical. Consideration should be given, during layout of buildings, roads, fencing and appurtenances, to winter conditions, especially of snow drifting and removal.

Considerable energy savings may result from partially earth protected north walls, from solar passive collectors, and from proper insulation. Evergreen shrubs planted in the correct location may dampen cold prevailing winter winds but if planted in an incorrect position, can cause drifts or interfere with snow removal.

Babbit and Bauman, General considerations. Before treatment plant design is begun, treatment requirements will be determined on the basis of meeting stream and effluent requirements set by either U. Guidance for coordination with regulatory agencies in the establishment of treatment requirements for waste streams generated at military installations is contained in Section 4 of TM for Army projects, and in AFR and AFP for Air Force projects. The U. Environmental Protection Agency EPA issues effluent standards covering the discharge of toxic and hazardous pollutants.

Strict limitations on discharges of these pollutants should be imposed. Particularly applicable to the military is the prohibition of release of chemical or biological warfare materials and high-level radioactive wastes. Public Law , with subsequent amendments, requires pretreatment of pollutants which may interfere with operation of a sewage treatment plant or pass through such a plant untreated. Additionally, in many cases, pretreatment of industrial wastewater will be necessary to prevent adverse effects on the sewage treatment plant processes. Some types of industrial waste may be admitted to wastewater treatment plants, e.

Flow of industrial wastewater may be reduced through process modification or wastewater recirculation. Adverse impacts on the treatment plant can be mitigated by reducing the concentration of those compounds causing the problem. Table is a listing of compounds which inhibit biological treatment processes.

In some cases, the adverse impact may be caused by short-lived occurrences of either wastewater containing high concentrations of compounds or a wastewater flow rate much higher than the average daily flow. This situation, which is commonly called slugs, may, in some cases, be managed by including an equalization basin upstream of the treatment plant.

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Barns, et al. State regulations. Most states require a minimum of secondary treatment for all domestic wastewaters. In critical areas, various types of advanced wastewater treatment processes for the removal of phosphorus and nitrogen will be imposed by the State regulatory agencies to protect their water resources. The designer must review the applicable State water quality standards before setting the treatment level or selecting the treatment processes. Local regulations.

In general, local governments do not specify requirements for wastewater treatment facilities per se. Preliminary treatment is defined as any physical or chemical process at the wastewater treatment plant that precedes primary treatment. Its function is mainly to protect subsequent treatment units and to minimize operational problems. Pretreatment at the source to render a wastewater acceptable at the domestic wastewater treatment facility is not included. Primary treatment is defined as physical or, at times, chemical treatment for the removal of settleable and floatable materials.

Secondary wastewater treatment is defined as processes which use biological and, at times, chemical treatment to accomplish substantial removal of dissolved organics and colloidal materials. Land treatment can be classified as secondary treatment only for isolated locations with restricted access and when limited to crops which are not for direct human consumption. For the legal definition of secondary treatment, see the glossary.

Advanced wastewater treatment is defined as that required to achieve pollutant reductions by methods other than those used in conventional treatment sedimentation, activated sludge, trickling filter, etc.


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Advanced treatment employs a number of different unit operations, including ponds, post-aeration, microstraining, filtration, carbon adsorption, membrane solids separation, and specific treatment processes such as phosphorus and nitrogen removal. Advanced wastewater treatment is capable of very high effectiveness and is used when necessary to meet strict efluent standards. Organics and suspended solids removal of over 90 percent is obtainable using various combinations of conventional and advanced wastewater treatment processes. Phosphorus levels of less than 1 milligram per liter and total nitrogen levels of 5.

Table provides a summary evaluation of wastewater treatment processes. Tables and illustrate the applicable processes and their possible performance. All of the above will be used for guidance in selecting a process chain of treatment units and in conjunction with TM , which applies directly to the selection of treatment processes.

The required treatment is determined by the influent characteristics, the effluent requirements, and the treatment processes that produce an acceptable effluent. Influent characteristics are determined by laboratory testing of samples from the waste stream or from a similar waste stream, or are predicted on the basis of standard waste streams. Effluent quality requirements are set by Federal, interstate, State, and local regulatory agencies. Treatment processes are selected according to influent-effluent constraints and technical and economic considerations.

Treatment capacity is based on the design population, which is the projected population obtained by analysis. The resident population is determined by adding the following:. Military personnel. The sum of existing and proposed programmed family housing units; permanent, temporary and proposed BOQ and BEQ spaces. Dependents and others. The sum of units times 1.

The non-resident population is found by summarizing the following: Off-post military. This is the difference between the resident military as indicated in a above and the strength shown in the Army Stationing and Installation Plan ASIP. Civilian personnel under Civil Service. NAF personnel. Contractor personnel. Daytime schools. Daytime transients. The effects of birth rates, death rates, and immigration are not applicable to military installations. The assigned military population both present and foreseeable, is obtained from the ASIP. Nature of activities. The nature of the activities of the personnel at a military installation are a very important factor in determining per capita waste loads because different activities have different water uses.

Table illustrates this fact in terms of gallons per capita per day gpcd ; table shows how waste loadings vary between resident and non-resident personnel. The values shown in table , for that portion of the contributing population served by garbage grinders, will be increased by 30 percent for biochemical oxygen demand values, percent for suspended solids, and 40 percent for oil and grease. Contributing compatible industrial or commercial flows must be evaluated for waste loading on a case-by-case basis.

Variations in wastewater flow. The rates of sewage flow at military installations vary widely throughout the day.

Sewer Forced Main

The design of process elements in a sewage treatment plant is based on the average daily flow. Transmission elements, such as conduits, siphons and distributor mechanisms, will be designed on the basis of an expected peak flow rate of three times the average rate. Clarifiers will be designed for a peak hourly flow rate i. Consideration of the minimum rate of flow is necessary in the design of certain elements, such as grit chambers, measuring devices and dosing equipment; for this purpose, 40 percent of the average flow rate will be used.

Average daily wastewater flow. The average daily wastewater flow to be used in the design of new treatment plants will be computed by multiplying the design population by the per capita rates of flow determined from table , and then adjusting for such factors as industrial wastewater flow, stormwater inflow and infiltration. Where shift personnel are engaged, the flow will be computed for the shift when most of the people are working.

A useful check on sewage volumes would be to compare water consumption to the sewage estimate neglecting inflltration, which will be considered subsequently. About 60 to 80 percent of the consumed water will reappear as sewage, the other percent being lost to irrigation, fire-fighting, washdown, and points of use not connected to the sewer.

Infiltration must also be kept to a minimum. Both must be carefully analyzed and the most realistic practical quantity that can be used in design must be assigned to these flows, Leakage of stormwater into sewer lines often occurs through manhole covers or collars, but this usually is no more than 20 to 70 gallons per minute if manholes have been constructed and maintained properly. However; leakage into the sewer mains The amount of water that actually percolates into the groundwater table may be negligible if an area is occupied by properly guttered buildings and paved areas, or if the subsoil is rich in impervious clay.

In other sandy areas, up to 30 percent of rainfall may quickly percolate and then lift groundwater levels. Infiltration rates have been measured in submerged sewer pipe. Relatively new pipe with tight joints still displayed infiltrations at around 1, gallons per day per mile, while older pipes leaked to over 40, gallons per day per mile.


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  6. Sewers built first usually followed the contour of water courses and are often submerged while more recent sewers are not only tighter, but are usually built at higher elevations as the system has been expanded. Utilize existing flow records, sewer flow surveys, and examine the correlation between recorded flows and rainfall data to improve the infiltration estimate. The economic feasibility of improving the collection system to reduce the rate of infiltration should be considered.

    If infiltration is known to be negligible at manholes, then an infiltration allowance may be calculated based upon area served and figure Curve A should be used for worst conditions when pipes are old and joints are composed of jute or cement. Curve B applies to old pipes with hot or cold asphaltic joints or for new pipes known to have poor joints. Curve C is used for new sewers where groundwater does not cover inverts and when joints and manholes are modern and quite tight.

    Of course, field tests may be conducted to more closely estimate infiltration. Contributing populations. In calculating contributing populations, use 3. In hospitals, count the number of beds, plus the number of hospital staff eating three meals at the hospital, This total is the number of resident personnel to be used in the design calculations. Individuals will be counted only once, either at home or at work. The capacity factor still applies in calculating design populations. Industrial flow. Industrial wastewater flows will be minimal at most military installations.

    When industrial flows are present, however, actual measurement is the best way to ascertain flow rates. Modes of occurrence continuous or intermittent and period of discharge must also be known.

    Typical industrial discharges include wastewaters from the following:. Stormwater flow. Including stormwater flows is important in treatment plant design either when combined sewer systems are served or when significant inflow enters the sewer system. Combined sewer systems will not be permitted in new military installations. Separate sewers are required and only sanitary flows are to be routed through treatment plants. For existing plants that are served by combined sewer systems, capacities will be determined by peak wet-weather flow determined from plant flow records.

    In the absence of adequate records, hydraulic capacities of four times the dry-weather flow will be used in the design. Reference to existing systems is applicable to Army facilities only. Suspended solids and organic loading can be interpreted as population equivalents when population data constitute the main basis of design. Typical population equivalents applicable to military facilities were given in table These equivalent values can also be used to convert non-domestic waste loads into population design values.

    The effects of garbage grinding will be incorporated into population-equivalent values when applicable. The waste stream to be treated at existing military installations should, when feasible, be characterized; this actual data should be used in the design.

    A capacity factor CF taken from table is used to make allowances for population variation, changes in sewage characteristics, and unusual peak flows. The design population is derived by multiplying the actual authorized military and civilian personnel population called the effective population by the appropriate capacity factor. Where additions are proposed, the adequacy of each element of the plant will be checked without applying the capacity factor.

    When treatment units are determined to be deficient, then capacity factors should be used to calculate the plant capacity required after expansion. However, the use of an unnecessarily high CF may so dilute waste as to adversely effect some biological processes. If the area served by a plant will not, according to the best current information, be expanded in the future, the capacity factor will not be used in designing treatment components in facilities serving that area.

    The following equation eq may be used to estimate total flow to the sewage plant where domestic, industrial and stormwater flows are anticipated. Normal sewage. The wastewater at existing facilities will be analyzed to determine the characteristics and constituents as required in paragraph For treatment facilities at new installations which will not generate any unusual waste, the treatment will be for normal domestic waste with the following analysis: pH 7. These values represent an average waste and therefore should be used only where detailed analysis is not available.

    When the water supply analysis for the installation is known, the above analysis will be modified to reflect the normal changes to constituents in water as it arrives at the wastewater treatment plant. Nondomestic loading. Nondomestic wastes are stormwater; infiltration, and industrial contributions to sewage flow. Stormwater and infiltration waste loadings can be determined by analyses for the constituents of normal sewage, as presented in the previous section.

    For these types of flows, the major loading factors are suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, and coliform bacteria. Industrial loading. Industrial waste loadings can also be characterized to a large extent by normal sewage parameters. However; industrial waste contains contaminants not generally found in domestic sewage and is more more variable than domestic sewage. This is evident in terms of pH, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, oil and grease, and suspended solids; other analyses e. Each industrial wastewater must be characterized individually to determine any and all effects of treatment processes.

    Regulatory requirements. These regulations implement Executive Orders and DOD Directives and, in general, direct compliance with treatment requirements established by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency and the environmental agency of the state in which the installation is located.

    Effluent requirements for new Federal facilities that establish maximum pollution discharge limitations will be provided by coordination of the Corps of Engineers Design Office with the EPA Regional Federal Facilities Coordinator. AFP provides guidance in coordinating design for Air Force projects, and TM provides guidance in coordinating design for other military projects.

    In countries or areas not under U. The design of treatment facilities will be determined by feasibility studies, considering all engineering, economic, energy and environmental factors. For the purpose of comparison, the energy generated by the treatment process and used in the treatment plant will not be included in the energy usage considered. Only the energy purchased or procured will be included in the usage evaluation. All legitimate alternatives will be identified and evaluated by life-cycle cost analyses.

    According to section b 2 of PL , construction shall not be initiated for facilities for treatment of wastewater at an Federal property or facility if alternative methods of wastewater treatment at some similar property or facility utilizing innovative treatment processes and techniques, including but not limited to methods utilizing recycle and reuse techniques and land treatment, are in use.

    If the life-cycle cost of the alternative treatment works exceeds the life-cycle cost of the most cost effective alternative by more than 15 percent, then the least expensive system must be used. The Administrator may waive the applications of this paragraph in any case when the Administrator determines it to be in the public interest, or that compliance with this paragraph would interfere with orderly compliance with conditions of a permit issued pursuant to section of this act.

    The toxicity, coliform count, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, settleable solids, and nutrient load of the waste stream must be considered in determining its impact on the receiving waters. The impact is dependent on the ability of the receiving water to assimilate the waste stream. Dissolved oxygen levels provide one of the means to interpret the impact. Increased waste loads cause increased microbial activity, exerting a high oxygen demand and a lowering of the dissolved oxygen level of the receiving water. A low dissolved oxygen level affects the viability of most aquatic life.

    Design data for oxygen levels in fresh water are given in appendix B. Treatment systems handling less than 1. For some packaged treatment systems, the principles of design are no different but the choice of equipment will usually differ from that used in large plants. This is usually due to the effect of economies of scale, whereby certain operations are economically feasible only on a large scale. In other cases, certain treatment systems such as septic tanks, Imhoff tanks, waterless toilets, mounding systems and composting toilets are only applicable to very small flows.

    Small packaged plants must make larger safety factor allowances for flow variation and temperature effects relative to total wastewater flows. Smaller package plants inherently have less operational flexibility; however, they are capable of performing effectively and efficiently. These small packaged plants may consist of trickling filter plants, rotating biological discs, physical-chemical plants, extended aeration activated sludge plants, and septic tanks.

    Barnes and Wilson, Criteria for other processes have been presented in other chapters of this manual. See also: Hutzlet, et al. Septic tanks, with appropriate effluent disposal systems, are acceptable as a treatment system for isolated buildings or for single-unit residential buildings when permitted by regulatory authority and when alternative treatment is not practical. When soil and drainage characterictics are well documented for a particular site, septic tank treatment may be permanently feasible. Septic tanks perform settling and digestion functions and are effective in treating from 1 to population equivalents of waste, but will be used only for 1 to 25 population equivalents, except when septic tanks are the most economical solution for larger populations within the above range.

    Minimum size will be at least gallons capacity. In designing tanks, the length-towidth ratio should be between and , and the liquid depth should be between 4 and 6 feet fig See Military Standard Drawings No. Detention time depends largely on the method of effluent disposal. When effluent is disposed of in subsurface absorption fields or leaching pits, 24 hours detention time based on average flows is required. The septic tank must be sized to provide the required detention be low the operating liquid level for the design daily flow plus an additional 25 percent capacity for sludge storage.

    If secondary treatment such as a subsurface sand filter or an oxidation pond is provided, this can be reduced to 18 hours. Open sand filter treatment can further reduce detention time to 10 to 12 hours. Absorption field and leaching well disposal should normally be limited to small facilities less than 50 population equivalents. If the total population is over 50, then more than one entirely separate field or well would be acceptable.

    For 10 or more population equivalents, discharge of effluent will be through dosing tanks which periodically discharge effluent quantities near 80 percent of the absorption system capacity. Subsurface absorption. Subsurface absorption can be used in conjunction with septic tank treatment when soil conditions permit.

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    Percolation tests must be performed as required by the U. Public Health Service, and the groundwater table at the highest known or anticipated level must not reach any higher than 2 feet below the invert of the lowest distribution line. Absorption fields normally consist of open-joint or perforated distribution pipe laid in trenches 1 to 5 feet deep and 1 to 3 feet wide. The bottoms of the trenches are filled with a minimum of 6 inches of to 2-inch rock or gravel fig The perforated distribution pipe is laid on top of this rock, and the open joints between pipe lengths are covered to prevent clogging.

    More rock is placed carefully over the pipe network, and then a semipermeable membrane is used over the rock layer to prevent fine-grained backfill from clogging the drainage zone. Distribution pipe may be spaced as close as 2 feet if the rock beneath is deep, the subsoil porous, and distance to bedrock greater than 4 feet. Generally, distribution pipelines are 3 to 6 feet apart laterally and are no longer than feet. Minimum depth of trench will be 18 inches, with 12 inches of backfill. Invert slopes will be 0. Soil absorption systems will be feet from water supply wells, 50 feet from Soil testing is a mandatory prerequisite for any subsurface disposal of waste.

    Finally, local and State regulations must be consulted for additional mandatory requirements. Leaching wells. Leaching wells can be used for septic tank effluent disposal where subsoil is porous. Although absorption beds are generally preferred, site characteristics and cost considerations may encourage the use of a leaching well. Wells are constructed with masonry blocks or stone with lateral openings, and gravel outside to prevent sand from entering the well. If more than one well is required, they should be spaced at intervals with at least twice the diameter of a well as distance between well hole sides.

    Percolation area is that area on the side and bottom of the hole for the leaching well. The bottom of a leaching well should be 4 feet above seasonal high water. Subsurface sand filters. Septic tank effluent can also be applied to subsurface sand filters. Subsurface explorations are always necessary. Clogging and installation costs are significant disadvantages. Where recir-culatory sand filters on used dose rate may range between gallons per day per square foot, Consult EPA Manual No. Percolation tests. In the absence of groundwater or subsoil information, subsurface explorations are necessary.

    This investigation may be carried out with shovel, posthole digger, or solid auger with an extension handle. In some cases the examination of road cuts or foundation excavations will give useful information. If subsurface investigation appears suitable, percolation tests should be made at typical points where the disposal field is to be located. Percolation tests determine the acceptability of the site and serve as the basis of design for the liquid absorption. Percolation tests will be made as follows fig Add 2 inches of coarse sand or fine gravel to the bottom of the hole. In some types of soils the sidewalls of the test holes tend to cave in or slough off and settle to the bottom of the hole.

    It is most likely to occur when the soil is dry or when overnight soaking is required. The caving can be prevented and more accurate results obtained by placing in the test hole a wire cylinder surrounded by a minimum 1-inch layer of gravel of the same size that is to be used in the tile field. Keep water in the hole at least 4 hours and preferably overnight. In most soils it will be necessary to augment the water as time progresses. Determine the percolation rate 24 hours after water was first added to the hole. In sandy soils containing little clay, this prefilling procedure is not essential and the test may be made after water from one filling of the hole has completely seeped away.

    From a reference batter board as shown in figure 64, measure the drop in water level over a minute period. This drop is used to calculate the percolation rate. From the batter board, measure the drop water level at approximately minute intervals for 4 hours, refilling to 6 inches over the gravel as necessary. The drop in water level that occurs during the final minute period is used to calculate the percolation rate. The drop in water level that occurs during the final 10 minutes is used to calculate the percolation rate. Figure will be used to determine the absorption area requirements from percolation rate measurements.

    Tile fields are not usually economical when drop is less than 1 inch in 30 minutes. Humus "composting" toilets. Forest Service Fay and Walke, and several manufacturers have developed several types of humus toilets. Hartenstein and Mitchell, All are watertight and depend upon microbiological decomposition for their reduction in volume and their destruction of pathogens. The patented "Clivus Multrum is the forerunner of the modern composting toilet.

    The Clivus Multrum essentially involves only a toilet seat and a large sloped container with floor tilted at 33 degrees. This allows excreta to aerate and to gradually move to the base of the chute toward an access hatch. Excess moisture evaporates through a 6 inch roof vent. The system depends upon the user depositing peat moss or soil into the chute periodically. Kitchen waste, toilet paper, shredded paper or other biodegradable waste should also be added regularly. After about three years, and once each year thereafter, a small amount of humus-like compost may be removed from the access port and used as fertilizer.

    These units are very efficient, inexpensive, simple and easy to install. Their only shortcoming is space, for they require a slope or must be installed on the second floor. They should be seriously considered in mountainous terrain or when buildings are built on slopes. Smaller box-like units have been designed and installed in Scandanavia and England but these require an electric heater. See Liech, Incineration toilets. Incineration toilets are available from several manufacturers.

    They are selfcontained. After each use, when the lid is closed the waste is incinerated, using gas or electricity. Maintenance costs for new elements and ash removal are high. Such toilets are energy intensive and cannot be recommended except for isolated sites or for emergency installations. They are, however, safe, easy to install and, if constructed and maintained properly, are acceptable to personnel. Chemical toilets. Low insertion loss. High isolation.

    High rejection. Wide temperature range. The QPQ provides low insertion loss and high rejection, making it an ideal choice for Small Cells. It is housed in a compact, RoHs compliant 2. Key Features. High rejection Filter Housings. TurboFlo Duplex Filters have the transfer valve welded directly between the filter housings. This not only takes up less space but eliminates the possibility of leaks from the four flanged joints.

    Housings are designed and stamped, if required, to ASME code. In the filter housings, fluid flow does not directly EnviroPump and Seal, Inc. Proven the most reliable Hot Oil Pump since Complete one-stop total package responsibility. Pump , sealing system, motor, base, monitoring, etc.

    Three Year Warranty includes seal. Manufactured in USA. Eliminate fire risk associated with some models. Eliminate personnel safety hazard. Please refer to the technical manual for specific product parameters: SCMB The ceramic capacitive sensing element provides a rugged open face design which avoids clogging or sludge build up from the materials often encountered in wastewater.

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    For pump stations with duplex pumps each pump shall be designed to operate in a lead lag…. Pumping stations required for small remote areas which generate extreme peak flowrates of less than gpm, and where the possibility of future expansion is unlikely, and grinder pump installations serving three or more buildings, will be provided with two identical pumping Pneumatic ejector stations will be provided with duplex ejectors each sized for the extreme peak flowrate.

    Factory assembled pumping stations, commonly referred to as package type stations, are manufactured in standard sizes and….