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It's important to note that women were almost uniformly excluded from participating in the public sphere when it first emerged, and so the private sphere, the home, was considered the woman's realm. This distinction between the public and private spheres can help to explain why, historically, women had to fight for the right to vote in order to participate in politics, and why gender stereotypes about women "belonging in the home" linger today.

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In the United States, people of color have been excluded from participating in the public sphere as well. Though progress in terms of inclusion has been made over time, we see the lingering effects of historical exclusion in the over-representation of white men in the U. Share Flipboard Email. Updated August 31, The public sphere is where the free discussion and debate of ideas occurs, and the private sphere is the realm of family life.

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Feminist Epistemology

Historically, women and people of color have often been excluded from participation in the public sphere in the United States. Nordquist, Richard. The will of the people is expressed within it and emerges out of it. In his book, Habermas argues that the public sphere actually took shape within the private sphere, as the practice of discussing literature, philosophy, and politics among family and guests became a common practice. As men started engaging in these debates outside of the home, these practices then left the private sphere and effectively created a public sphere.

In 18 th century Europe, the spread of coffeehouses across the continent and Britain created a place where the Western public sphere first took shape in modern time.

There, men engaged in discussions of politics and markets, and much of what we know today as laws of property, trade, and the ideals of democracy were crafted in those spaces. On the flip side, the private sphere is the realm of family and home life that is, in theory, free of the influence of government and other social institutions. In this realm, one's responsibility is to oneself and the other members of one's household, and work and exchange can take place within the home in a way that is separate from the economy of the greater society.

However, the boundary between the public and private sphere is not fixed; instead, it is flexible and permeable, and is always fluctuating and evolving. It's important to note that women were almost uniformly excluded from participating in the public sphere when it first emerged, and so the private sphere, the home, was considered the woman's realm. You argue that Frankfurt School theory was similar to feminist thought in terms of its focus on experience and human relationality, but find that contemporary Frankfurt School theory has become too concerned with abstract issues of justification and ignores questions of gender or racial injustice.

Feminists Read Habermas (RLE Feminist Theory): Gendering the Subject of Discourse

Of course I am not including in this leading feminist critical theorists such as Fraser, Benhabib, Young and Jaeggi, who have sought in various ways to embed a concern with gender at the heart of critical theory. What I am concerned with is, why, to put it crudely, the mainly male theorists and heirs of Habermas — people like Honneth and Forst — who acknowledge the importance of a feminist agenda in some ways, still tend to treat gender as a marginal issue.

Against this, someone like Nancy Fraser shows in her recent work that actually, an analysis of gender oppression stands at the heart of understanding how capitalism operates. It is quite mysterious why it does not receive more attention given that, as you pointed out in your question, methodologically speaking, feminism and critical theory share similar commitments as well as a broader understanding of the aims of emancipatory political theory.

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Why do you think it is the case that questions of gender oppression have received little attention within critical theory, when critical theorists claim to be concerned with forms of structural oppression? I think it is a result in part of what I have referred to in the previous questions, namely the current preoccupation with meta-theoretical questions of context transcendence and the foundations of critical theory. To put it simply, the kinds of debates that have dominated critical theory in the last few years turn around the justification of various diagnostic paradigms.

Fraser does the same in response.

Habermas and Feminism - Critical Reflections on Normativity | Taine Duncan | Palgrave Macmillan

And so on. A difficulty with conducting sociological critique with reference to an all-encompassing, uni-foundational paradigm is that specificities of social experience are effaced and this, in turn, has simplifying effects on an account of power and oppression. For instance, the neo-Hegelian tendency to depict gender as an interpersonal dynamic of recognition fails to capture the ways in which gender is not just a relation between men and women in the domestic realm, but a structural inequality that influences reproduction in all social spheres.

These descriptive limitations mean that critical theory tends to generate normative proposals that are tangential to the diagnosis and correction of oppressive gendered dynamics. Ultimately, this failure to grasp key dynamics in the reproduction of a major and enduring form of social inequality calls into question the radical status of Frankfurt School thought.

You have an interest in black feminist theory from the U. What is it that black and post-colonial feminism may contribute to critical theory? These bodies of thought exemplify two important things with regard to the diagnostic and epistemic aspects of critique. First, black feminist thought demonstrates a way of grounding theory in the analysis of experience, without it necessarily becoming stranded in contextual particularism or relativism. Contrary to the fears of Frankfurt School thinkers, it shows how theorising from experience need not necessarily have reductive and limiting effects upon systematic political critique, especially if systematicity is conceived of in terms other than consistency with a uni-foundational paradigm.

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The point of theorising from experience is not to uncritically affirm immediate subjectivity but to theorise outwards from certain phenomenal realities in order to crystallise and deepen accounts of power. It is precisely with such an aim in mind, namely challenging established but flawed accounts of oppression, that Collins and other black feminist theorists used the neglected experiences of Afro-American women.

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  • The method of experiential disclosure is crucial, then, to grasping the complexities of oppression and to keep theoretical understanding relevant to its context by injecting it with new meaning. It does not follow therefore that attending to the particularities of social experience, will inevitably immure theory in the particular so that it is unable to emerge out of it to a general evaluative vantage point. Second, I think that contemporary critical theory fails to fully enact some of the epistemic implications of its concern with oppression.

    The animating concern with oppression seemingly imposes on the critical theorist a certain epistemic responsibility to avoid the type of top-down intellectual prescription that might symbolically compound the already disempowered status of oppressed groups. This epistemic responsibility means that theoretical reasoning ought to be construed in as reflexive a manner as possible, that is self-critical and dialogical process.

    Although, in principle, Frankfurt School theorists endorse such a notion of theoretical reasoning, their preoccupation with justifying the superior interpretative purchase of their particular paradigms over competing versions in practice blocks the development of reflexive critique. Black and postcolonial feminist theory provide instructive exemplars of theorizing that is reflexive and dialogical in nature and my contention is that Frankfurt School critical theorists could learn much from it. You come from a French poststructuralist tradition, whereas feminist ethicists of care come from more Anglo-American and analytical traditions although they criticize some tendencies of the analytical tradition, such as the idea of the autonomous, rational agent.