Typically this convergence point is somewhere along the horizon, as buildings are built level with the flat surface. When multiple structures are aligned with each other, such as buildings along a street, the horizontal tops and bottoms of the structures typically converge at a vanishing point. When both the fronts and sides of a building are drawn, then the parallel lines forming a side converge at a second point along the horizon which may be off the drawing paper.
This is a two-point perspective. Depth can also be portrayed by several techniques in addition to the perspective approach above. Objects of similar size should appear ever smaller the further they are from the viewer. Thus the back wheel of a cart appears slightly smaller than the front wheel.
Depth can be portrayed through the use of texture. As the texture of an object gets further away it becomes more compressed and busy, taking on an entirely different character than if it was close. Depth can also be portrayed by reducing the contrast in more distant objects, and by making their colors less saturated. This reproduces the effect of atmospheric haze, and cause the eye to focus primarily on objects drawn in the foreground.
The composition of the image is an important element in producing an interesting work of artistic merit. The artist plans element placement in the art to communicate ideas and feelings with the viewer. The composition can determine the focus of the art, and result in a harmonious whole that is aesthetically appealing and stimulating. The illumination of the subject is also a key element in creating an artistic piece, and the interplay of light and shadow is a valuable method in the artist's toolbox. The placement of the light sources can make a considerable difference in the type of message that is being presented.
Multiple light sources can wash out any wrinkles in a person's face, for instance, and give a more youthful appearance. In contrast, a single light source, such as harsh daylight, can serve to highlight any texture or interesting features. When drawing an object or figure, the skilled artist pays attention to both the area within the silhouette and what lies outside.
The exterior is termed the negative space , and can be as important in the representation as the figure. Objects placed in the background of the figure should appear properly placed wherever they can be viewed.
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A study is a draft drawing that is made in preparation for a planned final image. Studies can be used to determine the appearances of specific parts of the completed image, or for experimenting with the best approach for accomplishing the end goal. However a well-crafted study can be a piece of art in its own right, and many hours of careful work can go into completing a study. Individuals display differences in their ability to produce visually accurate drawings. Investigative studies have aimed to explain the reasons why some individuals draw better than others.
One study posited four key abilities in the drawing process: perception of objects being drawn, ability to make good representational decisions, motor skills required for mark-making and the drawer's own perception of their drawing. Motor control is an important physical component in the 'Production Phase' of the drawing process.
It has been suggested that an individual's ability to perceive an object they are drawing is the most important stage in the drawing process. Furthermore, the influential artist and art critic John Ruskin emphasised the importance of perception in the drawing process in his book The Elements of Drawing.
This has also been shown to influence one's ability to create visually accurate drawings. Short-term memory plays an important part in drawing as one's gaze shifts between the object they are drawing and the drawing itself. Some studies comparing artists to non-artists have found that artists spend more time thinking strategically while drawing. In particular, artists spend more time on 'metacognitive' activities such as considering different hypothetical plans for how they might progress with a drawing.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Drawing disambiguation. Main article: Perspective. Retrieved 2 April Retrieved 1 January Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved Topics in Cognitive Science. Writing and script: a very short introduction. New York: Oxford University Press. The Drawing Book. London: Black Dog Publishing. F; Duff, L; Davies, J Drawing- The Process. Bristol: Intellect Books. Rembrandt: The Painter at Work. Drawing — The Process.
The Daguerreotype. Classic Essays on Photography. The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques. Webdesigner Depot. Drawing with Pen and Ink. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation.
Drawing Lessons from the Great Masters 45th Anniversary ed. Watson-Guptill Publications published J; Bennett, S. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Cognitive Neuropsychology. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. I would like to express my gratitude to my editor, Joyce Dolan, for keeping me in the cold shower long enough to explain my methods. A special thanks to my parents, Darwin and Ruth Hillbcrry, for encourag- ing me to always pursue my interests. I would also like to acknowledge my brother, Tony, for being my best friend, spiritual advisor and occasional model.
Thanking my wife is something I don't do often enough. My daughter was six weeks old when 1 told my wife I wanted to try to make a living as a full- time artist. I owe a great deal to her for believing in me. In the beginning, neither of us realized how much I would need her to make it work. Without her help in running the business, I would be forced to get a "real job.
Step-by-step demontrations teach you tech- niques for basic strokes, blending, combining media, rubbing, indenting and masking, pack 16 CHAPTER THREE Draw Realistic Objects Seven step-by-step demonstrations teach you how to create the textures for old pitted metal, reflective metal, people — including eyes, skin and hair — glass, weathered wood, leather, barbed wire, and tips for drawing textures of clothing and fur. Before you can simulate surface textures you must learn to recognize them.
Look up from this book and glance around. There are as many types of textures as there are colors. Feel the slick paper of this page you are reading. Now touch a piece of your clothing. You can feel a textural difference. If you wanted to include this page and the fabric of your clothes in a realistic drawing, you would need to render the essential qualities that make paper look like paper and fabric look like fabric. Exaggerating the texture of your clothing enhances the look of the smoothness of the paper.
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I use this theory of opposites to heighten the realism in my work. No matter what your subject, adding texture and contrast also adds depth and realism to your drawings. In my view, drawings fall into two categories: contour line drawings and tonal drawings. A line drawing delineates the edges of a form. It is void of the shading that pro- duces a three-dimen- sional look. Many line drawings are sensitive, finished pieces of art, but I prefer to add light, shadow and texture in my work.
I begin with a line drawing, but only as the skeleton that holds the values and textures. It is an important part of drawing realistically, however. To get the most out of this book, you should have some knowledge or how to draw the contours of the shapes you see. If the proportions and perspective are incorrect, adding texture and shading will not make it look real. The most common problem when attempting realism is letting the skeleton show through in the finished piece. The real world does not have lines encircling the outer edges of objects, so avoid hard outlines in your drawings.
This thought amazes me when I look around at all the materials I have accumulated while exploring numerous drawing techniques. I've discovered that by using a variety of pencils, blenders and erasers you can increase the realism in your drawings. The good news is that all of the items I routinely use are inexpensive compared to the price of working with other media, and many traditional art stores let you experiment with pencils and paper before you buy them.
Graphite Pencils Artist-grade graphite pencils are more refined than your old no. These pencils come in a wide range of hardness and soft- ness and are labeled with letters and numbers. Pencils with the letter B are the softest. The higher the number in front of the B, the softer the pencil. The softest graph- ite pencil available is 9B, which produces the darkest line. Harder pencils make lighter marks and are noted with the letter H, with 9H being the hardest. Hard pen- cils are best for fine detailed work because they hold a sharp point better. A pencil with the letter F has a degree of hardness halfway between the H and B.
There are many brands of graphite pencils. A 2B pencil of one brand may be vastly different than the 2B of another brand. Charcoal Pencils Many people who are used to the feel of graphite effort- lessly gliding across their paper find charcoal too abra- sive. Several years ago, I came across Ritmo charcoal pencils. They combine the blackness of charcoal with the smoothness of graphite. They are available in degrees of hardness ranging from HB to 3B.
Other brands of char- coal pencils work just as well, although they create a slightly different texture. All charcoal pencils smudge easily, so if you're not familiar with this medium read the section Keep Your Drawing Clean on page Carbon Pencils 1 use two different types of carbon pencils: Wolff's and Conte carbon. They both come in several degrees of hardness and, like other pencils, are labeled with the let- ters H and B. The Wolff's carbon pencil has recently been reformulated to give a smoother feel and richer blacks than the old version.
It reflects light differently than charcoal and graphite. Conte carbon is made of graphite and clay. The clay gives it a warmer tone than either charcoal, graphite or Wolff's carbon. When either of these carbon pencils are used in combination with the other media, their inherent characteristics make them ideal for separating subjects containing similar values. Graphite Sticks Graphite sticks simply contain the graphite in a block shape. This allows you to use the broad edge to lay in large areas of tone.
They are usually available only in the softer B range of graphite. Charcoal Sticks There are two types of charcoal sticks. Vine charcoal is made from burnt willow branches. It comes in a variety of sizes with densities of hard, medium and soft. Vine charcoal is easy to blend into a rich velvety tone. Com- pressed charcoal is re-formed with carbon or clay added.
It's available in medium to very soft grades and is capa- ble of producing rich black tones. It's more difficult to erase and blend than vine charcoal. Berol turquoise graphite pencil Ritmo charcoal pencil Wolff's carbon pencil Conte carbon pencil r- 1 Block-shaped graphite stick Small vine charcoal stick Block-shaped vine charcoal stick Round compressed charcoal stick Get the Lead Out of Graphite Pencils The trusty no.
Lead is a metallic element that is not related in any way to the material found in a pencil — graphite. Graphite was not fully understood until the eigh- teenth century. It is actually a form of carbon — a non- metallic element. Graphite was previously called plumbago or black lead. This name persisted, and to- day graphite pencils are frequently called lead pencils. It is also a valuable tool for creat- ing textural effects. I use three different types of erasers. Eraser Pen This is a hollow plastic holder roughly the size of an ink pen. Round, vinyl eraser refills fit inside the holder, Erasing pen which can be clicked to lengthen the eraser.
The eraser refills are inexpensive. I use the Pentel Retractable Clic brand eraser pen to make thin, white lines in areas that have already been covered with graphite, charcoal or carbon, its like drawing with white. This type of vinyl eraser erases more T yP' n 9 completely than a kneaded eraser and doesn't leave as much eraser residue as a typewriter eraser. Typewriter Eraser This kind of an eraser can be sharpened like a pencil. It is quite abrasive and capable of digging back down to the white of the paper through dark values.
This also means it can damage the paper if you aren't careful. It Kneaded eras can remove more of the drawing medium than an eraser pen, but it also leaves more residue. If you need a sharp edge, use a razor blade to cut off the end of the eraser. Kneaded Eraser This is a soft, pliable eraser that can be molded into any shape you need. I don't even start drawing unless I have one of these nearby. Dabbing with a kneaded eraser leaves no eraser residue.
In fact, I use it to pick up the residue left by the typewriter eraser. It doesn't erase as completely as the other two erasers, but it has many other uses. Blending Tools Blending Stumps These are tightly wound paper sticks with points on both ends. They are available in several diameters. Use them to blend larger areas of a medium and also to apply the medium directly for softer effects. Blending Tortillons Although these resemble blending stumps, there are sig- nificant differences. Tortillons are not wrapped as tightly and are pointed only on one end.
They are not as solid as blending stumps. The differences are great enough to cause a dissimilar look to a blended area. Felt For much of my blending, 1 use felt purchased in one- foot 30cm squares from craft stores. I cut these pieces into 6" 15cm squares for easier handling. Use separate pieces of felt for each medium and a clean piece for blending one medium into another. Cut the squares into smaller pieces that you can roll tightly like a tortillon to make a soft blender for small details.
Use masking tape to keep the felt rolled. Paper Pieces of paper make good blenders. Wrap the paper around one or all of your fingers. The texture of the blending paper effects the outcome. A piece of textured charcoal paper used as a blender produces a different texture than a slick piece of typing paper. Facial Tissues and Paper Towels Fold a facial tissue into a small square and use the corner to get into smaller areas. It is very effective for lifting charcoal. Facial tissues will disintegrate quickly, so sometimes paper towels are a better choice for blending larger areas.
Make sure you don't use facial tissues that contain lotion or dye that could rub off on your drawing.
Hillberry J.D. - Drawing realistic textures in pencil - 1999.pdf
Chamois A clean, dry chamois is great for blending when you want a smooth texture. Stay away from poor quality chamois made for drying your car; this will break apart if rubbed on the paper too vigorously. It's always best to test any new material you plan to use as a blender before you use it on your drawing. Rub the chamois on a white piece of paper to see if it leaves any color or residue. This keeps you from mixing one medium with another. When you blend one medium with another, it doesn't matter.
However, it's best to begin the blending process with a clean blender. Ill tell you some papers 1 use and why I like them, but don't let that keep you from experimenting. Every artist has a particular way of applying media to paper. What works for me may not work for you. I have tried the paper recommendations of many pencil art- ists — whose work I greatly admire — and found some of the surfaces painfully hard to work with. Choose the Right Paper for the Subject To produce a variety of realistic looking textures in your drawings, you should find at least two papers that you like to work with.
One of the papers should have more tooth or texture than the other. If the majority of your drawing contains rough textures, the roughness of the paper can do much of the work for you. Also consider how dark the values need to be in your drawing. Papers with more tooth can create darker values because they hold more of your drawing media. Fine detail work and smooth textures are easier to produce with smoother papers. It's always a losing battle. Some papers are made using a wire mesh that creates a strong directional pattern in the tooth of the paper.
The pronounced pattern that emerges when you apply the media to these papers over- powers the textures you are trying to create. If you draw realistic textures, a paper like this would be handy only if your one and only subject has a similar texture. When you experiment with papers make sure you try both sides, because the patterned tooth is sometimes only on the front. My Favorite Papers Arches lb. I use the back of the paper because the front has a patterned tooth.
Its smooth surface is excellent for rendering fine details but still holds a moderate amount of media to render some dark values. Strathmore Series drawing paper This paper has a nice random tooth pattern. This means it contains some wood pulp that will cause the paper to yellow over time.
Don't let this keep you from experimenting with it. Watercolor boards and illustration boards These boards also have great drawing surfaces. If you like to work big, you'll have fewer problems with your drawings wrink- ling on these thick surfaces. I use Crescent No. Cold-press papers and boards typically have a much rougher texture, but Crescent No. Materials 1 3 Flattening the Tooth of the Paper It's always best to let the surface of the paper work for you by using a smooth paper for drawings with smooth subjects and a rougher paper for more textured subjects.
For drawings that contain both smooth and rough tex- tures you need to decide which type of paper will suit the overall drawing. If you use a smooth paper, you can create the rough areas by using techniques and media that produce more texture. These include techniques found in chapter two: employing textural strokes like cross-hatching and stippling, using softer pencils, using blenders that create more texture, not blending at all and using the indenting technique to produce more surface texture. If you choose a paper with more texture, you can flatten the tooth of the paper in areas where the smoother texture is needed.
This technique works best for smooth reflective surfaces like glass or metal. Flattening the Tooth of the Paper Use the rounded metal end of a Bercl Turquiose pencil to smash down the tooth of the paper. Small, overlapping, circular strokes work best to Flatten the tooth evenly. Tooth of the paper flattened Tone added without flattening the tooth 14 Drawing Realistic Textures in ftncil Miscellaneous Materials Electric Pencil Sharpener Sharpening pencils with a handheld or crank sharpener is possible, but when the blade becomes dirty or worn, it's difficult to keep the point of the pencil from breaking.
This is especially true with charcoal pencils. It's worth the extra expense to invest in a good electric sharpener. Sandpaper Block Use this to refine the point on your pencil. Twisting the pencil while you drag it down the paper toward you re- sharpens the tip. It keeps you from using your pencil sharpener too much and wasting pencils. You can collect the excess graphite, charcoal or carbon dust on a piece of paper under the sandpaper block. Transfer these shav- ings to a film container, and use the powdered medium in your drawings with a paintbrush or a blender.
Tracing Paper Inexpensive transparent tracing paper can be purchased even at most grocery stores. It should be durable enough to withstand heavy pressure with a sharp pencil without tearing. Mead Academic tracing paper is the brand I use. Ruler You'll need a ruler to use as a straightedge and for a measuring tool.
Drafting Tape This low-tack tape sticks to paper but will not damage the surface when removed. Use it to attach drawing pa- per to a slanted drawing board and for masking straight edges. Art Knife This is a pointed razor blade connected to a pen-shaped handle. Its shape makes it easier to handle than a utility knife.
Use it to cut shapes out of frisket for masking. Frisket Film Use this transparent masking film to mask areas you want to keep white while you render the surrounding areas. Liquid Frisket This type of mask can be used in smaller areas than fris- ket film. It's applied with a brush or a special applicator and removed by rubbing or peeling.
Some brands stain the paper and are meant to be painted over once the dried frisket is removed. Use the type manufactured for use on watercolor paper in areas that will remain un- painted. I use the Grafix brand Incredible White Mask. Fixative This spray protects your drawing. There are several brands to choose from in both matte and glossy finishes. Workable fixatives reduce smudging, yet still allow you to add media and do some erasing. Nonworkable fixa- tives are permanent protective coatings made for your finished drawing.
Lightbox If you use photographs for reference material, you should use a lightbox. It's amazing how much more detail is visible in the shadow areas. View the photo without the lightbox to see the most detail in the lighter sections. Drawing Lamp Many potentially great artists are hindered by their in- ability to see what they are doing. Even if the kitchen table is your drawing board, set up a desk lamp to illumi- nate your drawing surface.
Place the lamp on the side opposite your drawing hand. This keeps the shadow of your hand from being cast on your paper. Should a light background be used? Or would it have more snap with a dark one? Should the paper be smooth, or rough? Would it be better with charcoal? Or maybe a combination of all of them? It's enough to make you want to take up sculpting! Don't get discouraged— this chapter shows you some unique ways of handling drawing media to produce an assortment of effects you might not have thought possible. You still have to ask yourself all those questions, but once you know what each medium is capable of, the decisions are easier.
I am a self-taught artist, and I use many unconventional techniques in my work. The best advice I can offer you is this: Pay attention to your teacher. That means you. This book is merely the textbook you are using to teach yourself.
Many of the techniques I demonstrate here I stumbled on by accident while experimenting with other methods. I encourage you to explore the material in this chapter, analyze your successes as well as your failures and learn from both. Sunder Mchta Keep Your Drawing Clean One of the things I love most about working with char- coal and pencil is how easily it can be blended to create various shades of gray.
One swipe of a clean cloth over some charcoal lines makes a beautiful progression of de- scending values arc across your paper. That's fine, if it's intentional. If the cloth is your shirt, and you've just pro- duced what appears to be a smoking comet through the face of your latest commissioned portrait — you've got a problem.
Watch Those Hands Some drawing methods require an extremely uniform texture, so irregularities in the paper can come back to haunt you. To begin with, try not to touch your drawing paper with bare hands. Wear cotton gloves, or make sure you pick the paper up by the edges where it will be trimmed or covered with a mat. Even if you think your hands are clean, your fingertips can transfer oil to the paper. This oil becomes apparent if it's in an area where you apply charcoal or graphite powder.
It works exactly like fingerprint dusting powder, leaving perfect imprints of the person responsible for groping your paper. I find it impossible to make a smooth, even tone with charcoal or graphite powder in an area with fingerprints. Upper Left to Lower Right If you're right-handed, always try to begin drawing on the upper left of the paper and work to the lower right. This keeps your hand from smearing sections that arc complete.
It also keeps your hand from obstructing your view as the drawing progresses. If you're left-handed, work from the upper right to the lower left. Bear in mind, dark charcoal smears very easily — try to save it for last. If you do end up with charcoal next to a light area that still needs to be developed, a workable fixative can help keep the charcoal in place. However, it does change the texture of the paper wherever it's applied.
Shown here are some other methods to keep your drawings clean. Create a Barrier Tape a piece of slick paper on the side of your hand where it rests on the paper. This allows your hand to glide smoothly across the drawing paper and acts as a barrier to keep oil and dirt from transferring to the drawing paper.
Cover Completed Areas When you do need to work on an area that requires your hand and arm to rest on a completed section, tape a sheet of clean news- print paper over the area. The newsprint should be bigger than your drawing so it can he taped to your drawing hoard. My theory is: If it works, use it.
I'm way to hold a pencil, and they have been helpful for right-handed, but to produce certain random marks on giving me ideas to try. However, I believe there are as the paper, I've even held my pencil with my left hand many ways to do things as there are people. Each way and closed my eyes! Here are some of the ways I use of holding a pencil produces a different type of line. Til refer to them in the demonstrations Learn to hold the pencil in a variety of ways, and you throughout this book, will have more tools at your disposal to create the tex- Overhand Holding your pencil with your palm down like this keeps your wrist more stationary allowing your entire arm to do even larger strokes with the side of your pencil.
I also hold charcoal, graphite and carbon sticks this way to create broad, sweeping strokes. Underhand I use this method, which uses wrist and arm movement to make long, fluid strokes with the side of the pencil. With your palm facing you, cradle the pencil between your middle and index fin- gers. Then, place your thumb on top of the pencil. Adjust the value of the strokes by varying the pressure with your thumb.
Hold the pencil loosely and let its weight be the only pressure exerted on the paper to make extremely light, uniform strokes. Modified Writing Holding your pencil as if you were writing is good for detailed work. The only thing 1 do differently when drawing is to increase the distance between the pencil point and my fingertips.
This per- mits more freedom of movement and a better view of my work. Tips and Techniques 19 Seeing the Light Properties of light may seem obvious, but keeping them in mind can help you avoid many common mistakes. I find it useful to think of light as a measurable force that travels directly from its source to whatever I am looking at. The areas facing the light source are hit head-on, so they arc the brightest spots. Places facing slightly away from the light are hit less directly and are not illuminated as brightly.
Areas on the opposite side of the light source receive no illumination and fall into shadow. The inten- sity of light diminishes the farther it travels. This sphere shows the systematic changes of value called chiar- oscuro. Since the Renaissance, artists have used this method to describe the effects that light and shadow have on a form. These are five elements that I refer to throughout this book.
Highlight This is the lightest value seen on a form. It is most evident on smooth or shiny surfaces. It is actually the light source reflected back into your eyes. Use the white of your pa- per for all highlights and use smooth blending between the highlights and the adjacent values. Halftone This is the entire area on the form facing the light source. On this sphere, it is the area between the highlight and the core of the shadow. It gradually darkens in value as it turns away from the light source. A halftone can be rendered darker or lighter depending on the form's true color and lighting.
Reflected Light This is light that bounces back into the shadow from surrounding objects. It plays a big role in making forms look three-dimensional. Be careful not to render re- flected light too light. It should always be a darker value than any part of the form facing the light. Core of the Shadow This is the darkest value on the form.
It appears as a band of darkness between the halftone and the reflected light. The core of the shadow gives many clues about the contours of the form, so it is important to render its shape correctly. It is a simple shape on a sphere, but on an irregular form — like a rock — the core of the shadow must be drawn to follow the contours of the underlying form.
Cast Shadow This is the shadow cast by the form onto the ground plane or over other nearby forms. In general, cast shadow is darkest at the point next to the form where it originates. As it travels away from the form it becomes lighter in value. Cast shadows vary in intensity depend- ing on the lighting conditions. Diffused light creates light shadows with soft edges while a concentrated light source produces dark cast shadows with crisp edges. Other value changes also can be seen in most cast shad- ows.
In this example, I found that light was bouncing back into the cast shadow from the reflected light on the sphere. Scan the cast shadows of your subjects for subtle changes in value to add more realism to your drawings. The more severe the angle, the rougher the texture appears.
That's because the irregu- larities protruding from the form's surface face the light more directly, making them appear lighter than the un- derlying form. These protrusions also cast shadows onto the form. Indentations on the form receive less light, so they appear darker. However, the rim of an indentation that faces the light is brighter. Light, Texture and Changing Values The texture on this sphere is more prominent near the core of the shadow. This is where the light strikes the edge of the raised surface irregularities at the most ohlique angle.
In my drawings, 1 sometimes exaggerate this principle of light to accentuate textures in this area beyond what I see in my models. This gives a feeling of heightened realism. But if the out- side rim of the de- pression faces the light source, the rim will appear lighter than the surround- ing surface.
In this example the light comes from the up- per left, making the right side of each groove lighter. The edge of a recessed area is brightest where it is perpendicular to the light source. Basic Strokes— Value In my realistic drawings, I emphasize value and texture more than visible lines. The initial strokes are sometimes hard to see in the finished piece.
They are blended, erased or manipulated to create the look of a specific texture in the subject. These demonstrations show you some of the beginning strokes you need to know before we get into the really fun stuff. Remember, you can't play jazz until you know the scales! Follow the Contours of the Subject When shading a drawing, the direction of the value strokes help define the subject's form. I followed the shape of the top and bot- tom ellipses when I shaded this clay pot. To make an object look as three-dimensional as pos- sible, the tonal values must be rendered accurately.
There are many methods of shading drawings to create values. I use different hardnesses of pencils for various shades of gray and directional lines placed very close together. My strokes follow the contour of the subject to help indi- cate its form. The Wrong Way This is the subject drawn with the same values.
It lacks the sense of roundness that is evident in the first example because the strokes don't follow the contours. Circular Shading Method Another way to make smooth value changes begins with drawing small circular shapes, as shown on the left of this square. Overlap- ping the circular shapes, using more pressure, using softer pencils or using a combination of these three methods darkens the values. So, you need smooth transitions from dark 10 light in your drawing.
One method is to systematically apply more of the drawing medium in shadow areas and less in areas that receive more light. Use progressively longer and lighter strokes leading from the shadow to the light to do this. The most important thing to remem- ber is to make sure all the strokes begin in the darkest area of the subject.
Place drafting tape on the left edge so you can make smooth strokes without worrying about shading outside of the lines.
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Using a soft 4B graphite pencil, start at the top and apply short strokes — from left to right — down the length of the shadow side. Make these lines close together or slightly overlapping. Next, starting in the same place, apply longer strokes using a slightly harder pencil. I used a 2B.
Pay attention to the contours. Notice the bottom ellipse is rounder than the top. It's easier to make smooth, flowing lines if you use lots of arm motion and hold the pencil either overhand or underhand, as described on page Use shorter strokes and harder pencils for this side Dabbed with kneaded eraser for reflected light 2 Add Longer Strokes Starting in the extreme upper left and working down, keep adding longer strokes with slightly harder pencils as you make your way across the form.
This darkens all of the values at once, so make sure you don't build up the dark areas too fast. It's easier to add strokes to keep the transitions smooth than to erase them if an area is too dark. By now, you should be using a fairly hard pencil- like a 6H. If you notice abrupt transitions, go over them again with a softer pencil — just remember to begin the strokes in the dark area of the shadow.
The key to simulating texture begins with identifying its most no- ticeable characteristics. If possible, close your eyes and feel the subject. This gives you a better understanding of its surface quality and helps you decide which medium would work best to imitate the texture. Textural strokes made with charcoal create a distinctly different texture than strokes of graphite or carbon. For these demonstra- tions, experiment with all three and note the differences.
Begin the first series of strokes here. Gradually move your arm down while keeping the same stroke length. With light, even pressure make downward vertical strokes approximately an inch 2. Now, raise your pencil and slide your arm down the paper about W 0. Try to use a fluid motion. Move your hand rhythmically, as if gently whipping an egg with a fork. Continue moving your arm slowly down the paper, making sure the overlapping looks even.
Lift your pencil as little as possible when you bring it up for the next stroke to keep the value of the stroke consistent. Slightly overlap the lines from step one and apply the strokes down the page again. Re- peat this until you have covered all the area evenly. Depending on the final texture you want, the technique could end here. For ex- ample, since it leaves a hint of a directional line it can he used as the first step to draw convincing wood grain. If your hand touches the area previously covered with charcoal, cover that part of the drawing with a piece of newsprint.
Apply strokes diagonally in both directions, so every inch is covered with lines going four different directions.
Hillberry J.D. - Drawing realistic textures in pencil - pdf
Here I used cross-hatching with a medium vine char- coal stick. Random Texture With Sticks You can also use sticks to produce a wide variety of textures without directional lines. Here, 1 used overlapping circles and figure eights with a medium graphite stick. With an OverDrive account, you can save your favorite libraries for at-a-glance information about availability. Find out more about OverDrive accounts. With step-by-step projects that are designed to help sharpen artists' skills and heighten their confidence, this book demonstrates simple techniques for rendering the textures of everyday objects, such as metal, wood, plastic, hair, fur, feathers, and more.