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He is one of the first nominalists, and certainly the first important one. He also wrote on theological topics such as Trinity. He was subject to ecclesiastical censure during his lifetime, a fact that no doubt contributes to the relatively few explicit citations of him in the later Middle Ages. Nevertheless, it is undeniable that his influence was widespread.


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  • There are many exceptions to this generalization. And by the time of Anselm, the role of logical argumentation is beginning to grow. Certainly for Abelard the above generalization fails entirely. Nevertheless, a big change is about to occur. Prior to Abelard, philosophy in the Middle Ages had not been an exclusively academic affair.

    It had been addressed for the most part to any well educated reader interested in the topics being discussed. Soon, however, this all changes. Philosophy becomes an increasingly specialized discipline, pursued by and for those whose livelihood is found only in educational institutions. Philosophy and theology become more clearly distinguished from one another; both become more systematic, rigorous and precise.

    These virtues are accompanied by an increasingly technical jargon, which makes so much late-medieval philosophy intimidating and formidable to non-specialist readers. As with the previous generalization, this one should not be regarded as a philosophical fault of the later authors; it is simply a different way of doing philosophy.

    What we see in passing from the earlier to the later Middle Ages is a transition from one to the other. As part of the cultural revival described above, and from the late-eleventh century on, there was a new and increasing interest in having translations of previously unavailable texts, not all of them philosophical by any means. But, for whatever reason, new translations soon began to appear from:. The Spanish translators worked from Arabic texts. After such a circuitous route, it is no less than amazing that the Latin Europeans were able to understand anything at all of these newly available Aristotelian works.

    Eventually the extensive and thorough commentaries by the Moorish Ibn Rushd in Latin, Averroes, —98 were translated from Arabic as well. These commentaries were extremely important in shaping the late medieval understanding of Aristotle, although some of the views contained in them became highly controversial.

    Va-Va-Vandal: The Life and Times of Gaiseric, the Vandal King of North Africa

    By the mid-thirteenth century, they were widely known. After them, the Physics, Metaphysics and other Aristotelian writings gradually became known. This relatively sudden injection of so much new and unfamiliar material into Western Europe was a stunning shock, nothing less than revolutionary. It was no longer possible for philosophers and theologians to regard their task as simply one of deepening and elaborating traditional views that had come mainly from the Church Fathers and other familiar and approved authorities. As part of the revival that began after the turn of the millennium, new forms of education began to emerge in Western Europe.

    In general, we may distinguish four main types of educational practices in the Middle Ages: [ 22 ]. Monastic schools. These were schools that had been regularly associated with monasteries ever since the sixth century. This was another one of these monastic schools. The masters of this school became quite well known in their own right in the later-twelfth century.

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    The practice declined after c. Cathedral schools. These were schools associated with the official church of a bishop, and played a role similar to that of the monastic schools for monasteries: they trained young clerics and occasionally others as well. Important figures associated with the School of Chartres include Bernard of Chartres died c. Frequently, universities grew out of cathedral schools. Thus, the cathedral school at Paris developed by the early-thirteenth century into the University of Paris.

    An important cathedral school drew students from all over Europe. Such a school became known as a studium generale. The University of Paris was the premier university in Europe in the thirteenth century. The official founding of the University is usually put at this date, although it is clear that the statutes existed earlier. Oxford and Cambridge also date from the early-thirteenth century, although their period of greatest vigor in the Middle Ages came in the late-thirteenth and early-fourteenth century.

    Toulouse was founded in by papal charter. Salamanca was founded by royal charter in There were also universities in Italy; indeed, Bologna was the first university in all of Europe, and had the peculiarity of being a student -run university. Most universities had arts faculties, in addition to one or more of the others. In effect, the arts faculty was the equivalent of the modern undergraduate program.

    Others were best known for medicine. Paris had all four faculties, but the faculty of theology was considered the highest of the four. In the medieval university, philosophy was cultivated first and foremost in the arts faculty. When the newly translated works of Aristotle first appeared at the University of Paris, for instance, it was in the faculty of arts. The works were clearly not law or medicine. Some of them might be stretched a bit to count as medicine, but these were not the ones that were influential first.


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    • Some of these consequences were thought to be dangerous for Christian doctrine, and they were. In , Pope Gregory IX ordered that the works prohibited in not be used until they could be examined by a theological commission to remove any errors. Despite these bans, study and discussion of Aristotle could not be stopped. Why were these prohibitions issued? In part it was out of a genuine concern for the purity of the faith. Aristotelianism was thought, and rightly so, to be theologically suspect. On the other hand, it cannot be denied that some of the basis for the prohibitions was simply a resistance to new ideas.

      By their very nature, universities brought together masters and students from all over Europe and put them in close proximity. Already in the twelfth century, and certainly by the early-thirteenth, it is futile even to attempt anything like a sequential narrative of the history of medieval philosophy. Instead, the remainder of this article will mention only a few of the major figures and describe some of the main topics that were discussed throughout the medieval period. For a more complete picture, readers should consult any of the general histories in the Bibliography below, and for details on individual authors and topics the Related Entries in this Encyclopedia, listed below.

      Although there is certainly ample justification for giving special emphasis to these authors, it would be misleading if one thought one could get even a fair overall picture from them alone. Nevertheless, the list is instructive and illustrates several things. First of all, not one of these three or four authors was French. All but Ockham spent at least part of their careers at the University of Paris. This illustrates both the preeminence of the University of Paris in the thirteenth century and the increasing internationalization of education in the later Middle Ages in general.

      But it also illustrates another odd fact: the relative absence of Frenchmen as major players on the philosophical scene during this period, even at the premier university in France. There are certainly notable exceptions to this perhaps contentious observation see for example the entries on Peter Auriol , John Buridan , Godfrey of Fontaines , Nicholas of Autrecourt , Peter John Olivi , Philip the Chancellor , and William of Auvergne , but with the arguable exception of Buridan, surely none of them is of the stature of the four mentioned above.

      As a result, Aquinas enjoyed a far greater authority in the late-nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century than perhaps he ever did in the Middle Ages. To some extent, Bonaventure likewise came to be regarded as representing typically Franciscan views see the entry on Saint Bonaventure , and later on Scotus was highly respected and often favored among the Franciscans see the entry on John Duns Scotus. Ockham is a special case. He was a controversial figure, mainly because of political disputes with the Pope that embroiled his later life see the entry on William of Ockham. Nevertheless, as one of their own, the Franciscans have always been interested in him and in his writings.

      The upshot of all this is that major late medieval philosophers, like Buridan, who did not belong to a religious order have often suffered from neglect in standard histories of medieval philosophy, at least until fairly recently. Another neglected secular master was Henry of Ghent, a very important late-thirteenth century figure who has turned out to be crucial for understanding much of Duns Scotus, but whose views have only in the last few decades begun to be seriously studied see the entry on Henry of Ghent.

      For that matter, even many important and influential late medieval philosophers who did belong to religious orders are still virtually unknown or at least woefully understudied today, despite the labors of generations of scholars. Their works have never been printed and exist only in handwritten manuscripts, written in a devilishly obscure system of abbreviation it takes special training to decode. It is probably safe to say that for no other period in the history of European philosophy does so much basic groundwork remain to be done.

      Medieval Europe, the age of Christendom and Feudalism

      Medieval philosophy included all the main areas we think of as part of philosophy today. Nevertheless, certain topics stand out as worthy of special mention. To begin with, it is only a slight exaggeration to say that medieval philosophy invented the philosophy of religion. To be sure, ancient pagan philosophers sometimes talked about the nature of the gods. But a whole host of traditional problems in the philosophy of religion first took on in the Middle Ages the forms in which we still often discuss them today:.

      As for logic, the great historian of logic I. From the time of Abelard through at least the middle of the fourteenth century, if not later, the peculiarly medieval contributions to logic were developed and cultivated to a very high degree. For logical developments in the Middle Ages, see the articles insolubles , literary forms of medieval philosophy , medieval theories of categories , medieval semiotics , medieval theories of analogy , medieval theories of demonstration , medieval theories of modality , medieval theories of Obligationes , medieval theories: properties of terms , medieval theories of singular terms , medieval theories of the syllogism , and sophismata.

      In metaphysics, the Middle Ages has a well deserved reputation for philosophical excellence. The problem of universals, for example, was one of the topics that were discussed at this time with a level of precision and rigor it would be hard to find matched before or since. But it was by no means the only such question. For some of the main topics in metaphysics on which medieval philosophers sharpened their wits, see the articles binarium famosissimum , existence , medieval mereology , the medieval problem of universals , medieval theories of causality , medieval theories of haecceity , and medieval theories of relations.

      In natural philosophy and philosophy of science, medieval philosophy was of course very strongly—but not exclusively—influenced by Aristotle. See, for example, the articles medieval theories of causality and Saint Thomas Aquinas. Particularly from the fourteenth century on, the increasing use of mathematical reasoning in natural philosophy would eventually pave the way for the rise of early modern science later on. Important figures in this development include William Heytesbury and William of Ockham.

      Medieval epistemology was not, with some noteworthy exceptions, particularly worried over the problem of skepticism, over whether we have genuine knowledge see the entry on medieval skepticism. The tendency was to take it for granted that we do, and instead to ask about how this comes about: what are the mechanisms of cognition, concept formation, etc.

      For some of the important topics discussed in the area of medieval epistemology, see the entries divine illumination , medieval theories of demonstration, and mental representation in medieval philosophy. For details on some important developments in medieval ethics, see the entries on medieval theories of conscience , medieval theories of practical reason , and the natural law tradition in ethics.

      The above lists of topics and important figures should be regarded as only representative; they are far from exhaustive. This bibliography includes only items cited in the body of the article, plus general resources relevant to the study of medieval philosophy. More specialized bibliographies relevant to particular topics and individuals may be found in other articles in this Encyclopedia.

      See the list of Related Entries below. The changes made for the update published in March were contributed by Thomas Williams. The Main Ingredients of Medieval Philosophy 3. The Availability of Greek Texts 4. The Twelfth Century and the Rise of Universities 5.

      The Thirteenth Century and Later 7. The Middle Ages begin, we are told, with the death of Theodosius in , or with the settlement of Germanic tribes in the Roman Empire, or with the sack of Rome in , or with the fall of the Western Roman Empire usually dated C. It ends … with the fall of Constantinople, or with the invention of printing, or with the discovery of America, or with the beginning of the Italian wars , or with the Lutheran Reformation , or with the election of Charles V The Main Ingredients of Medieval Philosophy Here is a recipe for producing medieval philosophy: Combine classical pagan philosophy, mainly Greek but also in its Roman versions, with the new Christian religion.

      The Availability of Greek Texts While the influence of classical pagan philosophy was crucial for the development of medieval philosophy, it is likewise crucial that until the twelfth and thirteenth centuries almost all the original Greek texts were lost to the Latin West, so that they exerted their influence only indirectly. As for Plato, for a long time much of his influence was felt mainly through the writings of Augustine. For more than a millennium after his death, Augustine was an authority who simply had to be accommodated.

      He shaped medieval thought as no one else did. Moreover, his influence did not end with the Middle Ages. His force was and is still felt not just in philosophy but also in theology, popular religion, and political thought, for example in the theory of the just war. Spade [], pp. He came up with the lofty goal to translate Plato and Aristotle into Latin, write commentaries on the whole of that material, and then write another work to show that Plato and Aristotle essentially said the same thing: If the more powerful favor of divinity grants it to me, this is [my] firm purpose: Although those people were very great talents whose labor and study translated into the Latin tongue much of what we are now treating, nevertheless they did not bring it into any kind of order or shape or in its arrangement to the level of the [scholarly] disciplines.

      Once all this is done, I will not fail to bring the views of Aristotle and Plato together into a kind of harmony and show that they do not, as most people [think], disagree about everything but rather agree on most things, especially in philosophy. Boethius [], pp. But some of them joined him and became believers, including Dionysius the Areopagite and a woman named Damaris, and others with them. But, for whatever reason, new translations soon began to appear from: Sicily, which was at this time a melting-pot of Latins, Greeks, Jews, and Muslims.

      Euclid and Ptolemy were translated there, as well as other mathematical and medical works. Nevertheless, political tensions between the West and Constantinople at this time guaranteed that such contact was not widespread see the entry on Byzantine philosophy. An extremely important school of translators emerged at Toledo, under the direction of Archbishop Raymond d.

      Ibn Gabirol in Latin, Avicebron, Avencebrol, etc. It presents a systematic neo-Platonic view of the cosmos. In addition to these translations, Gundissalinus was also the author of some original philosophical works of his own. Gerard of Cremona d. Gerard began work at Toledo in In general, we may distinguish four main types of educational practices in the Middle Ages: [ 22 ] Monastic schools. Victor c. Hugh was also a theologian and theorist of mysticism. Richard of St. Richard, like Hugh, was a theorist of mysticism. Unlike Hugh, Richard was much more favorably disposed toward the new use of dialectic or logic in theology.

      He is said to have written a treatise of his own on logic but it does not appear to have survived. The Thirteenth Century and Later By their very nature, universities brought together masters and students from all over Europe and put them in close proximity. Some Main Topics in Medieval Philosophy Medieval philosophy included all the main areas we think of as part of philosophy today. But a whole host of traditional problems in the philosophy of religion first took on in the Middle Ages the forms in which we still often discuss them today: The problem of the compatibility of the divine attributes.

      The problem of evil. Ancient philosophy had speculated on evil, but the particularly pressing form the problem takes on in Christianity, where an omniscient, omnipotent, and benevolent God freely created absolutely everything besides himself, first emerged in the Middle Ages. The problem of the compatibility of divine foreknowledge with human free will. Many medieval authors appealed to human free will in their response to the problem of evil, so that it was especially important to find some way to reconcile our free will with divine foreknowledge see the entry on medieval theories of future contingents.

      Bibliography This bibliography includes only items cited in the body of the article, plus general resources relevant to the study of medieval philosophy. Gracia, Jorge J. Inglis, John ed. Koterski, Joseph W. Kretzmann, Norman, et al.