Cell phone data record traces with accuracy as long as they are linked to a call, message, or Internet data access. Under these conditions, they may be preferable to surveys where recording of time is approximate and less detailed. Travel may be underreported. Prompted recall offers an improvement. Passive cell signals over days may offer more robust metrics than surveys. Unit is device-trips rather than person-trips. Quality depends on CDR data density. Time of travel Self-reported in survey diaries. Times may be inaccurate and incomplete.
Accurate time stamps. Need to infer activity and link it to the time stamp versus en route travel. Stops versus activities Self-reported in survey diaries. Detailed log of stops and activities. Good detail on all travel purposes. Need to infer stops, activities, segments. Nonwork purposes are difficult to infer. Location of activities Self-reported in survey diaries. Smart geocoding needed to match. Difficult to infer the location of activities. A challenge in mixed land use areas. Travel purpose Self-reported in survey diaries. Home and work locations are inferred.
Poor inference on nonhome and nonwork. Joint travel Self-reported in survey diaries. Risk of underreporting. Not feasible to record or capture. Mode of travel Self-reported in survey diaries. Good detail by tour and segment. Walk and bike trips may be underreported. Not readily inferred. Route assignment Not usually captured in surveys.
Depends on trace data and algorithm. Tour generation Self-reported in detail in a survey. Analysis by using heuristics and rules. Data products do not include chains. Only aggregate trips are sold. Recording of travel elements. Mode choice can be imputed in cell phone data tables by using a combination of travel speeds and perhaps some transit routing information.
However, this method is not yet reliable, especially in large urban areas that experience congestion and where the speed difference across modes may be smaller. Commercially available CDR data provide aggregate trips between zones and do not include travel at the tour level in contrast to the high level of individual travel detail offered by activity-based models.
In most cases, model updates are limited to reflecting the availability of new sources of control data such as the Census Transportation Planning Products, journey-to-work data, American Community Survey ACS data, and up-to-date traffic or ridership counts. Models are also updated to account for the effect of major transportation investments such as new highways, the introduction of tolls, or the introduction of new transit services.
It is also possible that major changes in residential or commercial land use, such as urban revitalization, development of a new major employment cluster, or the introduction of new sports or conference facilities, may motivate the update of the model to better quantify their likely effects on travel. It is often necessary to develop freestanding modules to examine special event travel; changes in travel that originates outside the region or traverses the region; effect of new facilities on visi- tor travel; or needs of visitors who travel within a region.
Table provides a list of model-related tasks where CDR data can provide input instead of, or in addition to, traditional survey methods. For each module, the key attributes of each data source are outlined to highlight the corresponding strengths and weaknesses of traditional survey data and CDR data. Rolling samples of surveys similar in concept to the ACS or multiple snapshots of travel by season based on CDR data can achieve this objective and should be considered.
The calculation of the absolute or percentage change from season to season using seasonal data provides an additional off-model estimate of relative change over a typical day model approach. Visitor and establishment surveys can be supplemented through the use of CDR data. A better understanding of these events can benefit from off- model components that can be readily updated by using periodic surveys or snapshots that use CDR data.
Processed CDR data may be used to assess site-specific event studies such as airports, concerts, or sporting events. Limitations in inferring, aggregating, and expanding CDR data and the difficulties in providing path traces make these locations unsuitable for evacuation, emer- gency response, or other route-based studies. As a result, planners may under- or overestimate corre- sponding increases or slowdowns in travel. Surveys or CDR data that are collected periodically can provide more frequent updates of the factors that affect travel. The identification of trends in data and model results can be valuable tools to account for growth in intermediate years until a new regional survey and regional model are completed.
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As with seasonality effects, an analyst can focus on calculating absolute or percentage changes from year to year to provide an estimate of upward or downward trends in travel compared with the base-year model. These estimates can also prove valuable in updating forecast year estimates in cases where observed trends greatly exceed or significantly lag projected patterns. Continuous data collection by season. CDR data by month of the year. Differences in seasonal travel. Visitor travel patterns Targeted detailed visitor surveys. Airports, train stations, highway rest areas, hotels, and popular visitor sites.
Home as nighttime device location. Differentiate visitor from residential devices. Special generators Specialized surveys at airports, malls, or special event sites, Supplement to regional surveys. Data on mode, time of day, origin of trip, and socioeconomic detail. Capture of time of day and trip origin. Mode inference is weak. Socioeconomic data not available. Measurement of change over time. CDR data sets from different years.
Measurement of change in patterns. External travel License plate capture at cordon line. Follow-up survey of auto owners. Bluetooth data as an option. Definition of external cordon line. Number of devices crossing cordon.
Home origin to measure external travel. Travel elements for aggregate analysis and metrics. Key assumptions related to the home location of the device need to be accepted as part of this method. Although this project used raw CDR data for the Boston, Massachusetts, area that had been obtained for research purposes, the research team recognized that it is not likely that such a set of raw CDR data will be made available again. At the present time, only aggregated results of processed CDR data can be obtained commer- cially. The methods used by vendors to process this data are proprietary and are not disclosed.
To bridge this intel- lectual gap, the research team used the following three-step process: 1. The team analyzed the raw CDR data and described the processing methods used to infer trip ends and activities from the raw data.
The team compared the results of its processing of the raw CDR data with commercially pro- cessed CDR data for the same geography. In cases of similar results, it was concluded that the methods used to process the raw CDR data discussed in this report were broadly comparable to those used in preparing the commercial data. In cases of differences, the team documented the differences and discussed how they might be reconciled. The team compared results generated from the commercially available CDR products and the custom analysis of the raw CDR data with two independent transportation sources: regional household travel surveys and the regional travel demand model in Boston.
These compari- sons were necessary to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the CDR data and to develop a roadmap to enable practitioners to use CDR data effectively in the development of transport modeling and analysis. This analysis will allow practitioners to assess the value of this new CDR data stream as com- pared with that of traditional surveys and models.
On the one hand, CDR data offer a much larger volume of data on travel observed over a long period. However, despite their sample size and the advantage of repeated observations, CDR data are less detailed and require inferences to be made regarding locations, activities, purpose of travel, and the time of day of travel. On the other hand, household surveys are well tested, their strengths and weaknesses are well understood, and they are currently evolving through the use of technology.
Surveys are generally more expensive, have a much smaller sample size, and are collected infrequently as compared with CDR data. However, they offer the great advantage of providing household and person- level travel data, including accurate information on activities and purpose. They also provide detailed socioeconomic characteristics for each respondent, which allows for the development of nuanced models of daily travel at a disaggregate level.
If the outcomes of the two data sets are similar and the processes used to infer trip ends and activities are understood and considered acceptable, processed CDR data may offer a suitable and acceptable supplement to household surveys. Under such a scenario, CDR data can be used. The next sections present a flexible, modular, and computationally effi- cient software platform built to implement these methods, which are analogous to procedures of traditional travel demand models.
This system enables researchers to import raw cell phone data to produce trip matrices and road usage patterns in any city Toole et al. It also visualizes these outputs to communi- cate mobility patterns effectively to planners, stakeholders, and decision makers. The platform is an alternative to proprietary transportation software packages and has been built specifically to handle massive mobile phone data sets and additional open-source data.
The research team used the Boston metropolitan area as a case study for analyzing cell phone records. The gamut of travel demand estimation using big data is presented through a discus- sion of methods, validation, implementation, and applications. Given the scope of this analysis, cases from other continents, such as Latin America and Europe, are not included, although these were also tested Toole et al.
These comparisons allowed the research team to get an understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of cell phone data and how these data could be incorporated into different aspects of travel demand modeling. The data set included 2 million cell phone subscribers in the Boston metropolitan area for 2 months in Two different methods were used to extract travel patterns, which were compared with the other data sources for validation and evaluation purposes. These proprietary results by a third party use 3 months of CDR data that are adjusted by using the Census for the Boston region.
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The estimation methods and procedures are proprietary and not known to the project team. The Central Transportation Planning Staff model results were used as the baseline for comparisons with the demand estimates from the raw CDR data and the commercially available third-party CDR data. These data were used to obtain journey-to-work travel flows for Federal Highway Administration and to validate home and work inferences and the commuting flows estimated with the raw CDR data.
This sur- vey provides information on the departure time distribution used in analyzing raw cell phone data.
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The survey data were also compared with the raw CDR data estimation results in terms of trip purpose distribution. This survey, completed in , was used as another independent source for evaluating the travel demand results obtained with the CDR data. The survey data were compared with the raw CDR estimates on trip purpose and travel departure time. The properties of big data and how CDR data fit in this picture are discussed in Section 3.
In Section 3. This section includes a checklist that planners can use when thinking about the uses of CDR data, the strengths and weaknesses of these data, and efforts to open up the black box. Section 3. The option of using CDR data to develop travel demand modeling metrics is discussed, along with the value of CDR data in developing individual model components. Summary tables are used to compare traditional surveys and CDR data with regard to sampling and expansion; how key elements of daily travel are recorded in surveys and CDR data; and how travel elements for aggregate analysis and model components can be captured by each data source.
These sections describe how data and models from the Boston region were analyzed to compare and contrast measures derived from traditional sources to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of CDR data. The report identifies whether and how these extensive data resources can be used to improve understanding of travel characteristics and the ability to model travel patterns and behavior more effectively.
It also supports the evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of anonymized call detail record locations from cell phone data. The report includes guidelines for transportation practitioners and agency staff with a vested interest in developing and applying new methods of capturing travel data from cell phones to enhance travel models. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.
Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? However, development instigated by the desire to attract temporary visitors and the economic benefits they bring risks inauthenticity and avoids genuine resident engagement on how their community should evolve Heeley, ; Ioannides and Petridou, Different countries and regions receive various groups of immigrants for different reasons including existing family connections, historical ties and a common language, immigration policies relating to labor and asylum, and political and economic links between countries Bell et al.
Historically, urban centers have attracted most of the immigrant population, and this is driving city populations upwards Edwards et al. Globally there are around 3. Immigrants are naturally drawn to cities as hubs of transportation, existing diaspora and employment opportunities International Organization for Migration, In major global gateway cities, such as London, Toronto or New York, upwards of a third of the populations are immigrants, with urban centers in Asia and Africa generally showing lower, but ever increasing numbers International Organization for Migration, ; Skeldon, Immigrants bring their culture and increase cultural diversity in cities.
New traditions, food, festivals and more add to urban vibrancy, producing new hybrid forms of culture that are distinct to the new immigrant community. Immigrant districts are traditional tourism attractions, and reflect the new waves of immigration from different diaspora to new neighborhoods across the city Griffin and Dimanche, Most urban areas receive migrants who are seeking a peaceful life and employment opportunities unavailable in their own communities.
International events and economic necessity shape immigration flows. For example, the current Syrian crisis has led to an influx of Syrian refugees to European cities. Host countries can open the door to immigration because they need a larger workforce. The job opportunities were in the urban areas of Europe, North America and other economically powerful regions.
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Researchers have long studied the impact of immigration on cities and their labor markets, economy e. James et al. Cities that are strategic in managing immigrants can benefit significantly through the provision of skills and labor, and cultural development that diversity brings International Organization for Migration, ; OECD, Although recent political waves may contradict this, the opinion of international organizations remains that broadly speaking immigration brings positive impacts International Organization for Migration, A large number of trips worldwide are initiated by the desire to visit friends and relatives Backer, , ; Seaton, However, VFR has received comparatively little attention despite its substantial volume and importance to many travelers and communities.
This is arguably due to the political nature of much destination marketing discourse Backer, , ; Lee et al. The term VFR typically refers to one of four common visitor categories: respondents to visitor surveys are asked for their self-reported trip purpose and ascribed to either VFR, pleasure, business, or other Seaton, This conceptualization has been increasingly challenged, however, Moscardo et al.
Backer argued for the inclusion of accommodation use in conceptualizing VFR travel. These more comprehensive understandings better allow the impact personal relationships between residents and their VFR to be considered. For example, the convention visitor who chooses one event over another because she can catch up with an old friend for dinner, or the vacationers who choose a trip across Canada so they can spend time with their relatives in a town along the way, or the regional benefits of VFR visitors and their hosts in urban centers choosing side trips to downtown and rural areas Griffin, ; Griffin and Nunkoo, ; all of these examples, and more, would be excluded from VFR using the traditional trip purpose operationalization.
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Not only is the volume of visitation generated through VFR underestimated, but the cultural and economic impacts on a destination are also distinct from other forms of tourism development. VFR is a more stable source of demand, with less seasonality and less significantly impacted by external threats Griffin, Further, economic benefits are more widely dispersed across a community and not concentrated in a tourism core, benefitting a wider range of stakeholders, and creating demand that is more easily subsumed within the routine of a city.
VFR is more consistent with local demand and interests as residents guide and interpret their surroundings Shani and Uriely, ; Young et al. Residents as hosts also consume and co-create tourism with their guests Andrades and Dimanche, , taking vacation time to host, keeping their spending in the region, creating demand for cultural infrastructure that enables further tourism promotion Griffin and Dimanche, The general disregard of VFR is at best a missed marketing opportunity. VFR demand helps to retain a connection with residents and the production and consumption of culture and tourism Caffyn, ; Mundt, , avoiding the homogeneity and superficiality that other types of urban tourism development can create Ioannides and Petridou, VFR and immigration are closely connected Williams and Hall, , with implications for both communities and individuals.
Cities with a large foreign population are likely to see flows of visitors from countries that were sources of immigration. As demand develops, and travel flows between the two communities are established, opportunities for further cultural connections, increased trade, and additional types of tourism open up Dwyer et al. For immigrants who host, the VFR experience can inspire interaction with the new community in a leisure context, but importantly the experience is shared with someone who likely has familiar cultural understandings and mutual history.
This has implications for immigrant hosts and their relationships with their visitors and new community. VFR enables face-to-face interaction between host and guest, who can perform relationship roles, and demonstrate mutual care toward each other Baumeister and Leary, ; Cohen and Wills, For recent immigrants, isolation and culture shock can be an issue Mainil and Platenkamp, , and the opportunity to spend quality time with a loved one or close friend can positively affect well-being after their guest has left Griffin, Hosting can also shift the gaze of the immigrant resident, from newcomer to expert, and of the community as a place of residence to a place of leisure.
Leisure participation in general has been found to help immigrant integration e. Horolets, ; Lange et al. Guiding a guest can help build attachment and pride for the host to the new community which becomes an essential and contextual backdrop to the personal relationship, establishing a sense of home through the collection of stories and souvenirs that bridge old and new worlds that endures beyond the visit itself Humbracht, ; Lange et al. Urban residents have often been viewed as the demand side of tourism Ashworth and Page, , but they are also an important component of supply for their own communities.
Cities are natural VFR destinations because they often have large and diverse populations e. Statistics Canada, There is overlap between VFR and the nature of urban populations. As a growing number of people live and work in multiple cities on a rotating basis International Organization for Migration, ; OECD, and populations are made up of new or temporary residents who, to varying extents, treat their new communities as destinations to explore Edwards et al.
Arbitrary definitions shape binary understandings of tourist and resident. A tourist is technically someone who stays for less than a year Govers et al. Although useful for measurement, many individuals will struggle to categorize themselves this simply; for example, international students, temporary workers, those seconded to a satellite office for a period of months, or who visit places on a regular but seldom frequency Skeldon, Many transitory and newcomer residents will attract and cause mobility to their cities, whether for short leisure-based trips, or more permanent migration.
Mobile residents, of which urban areas are home to, create reason and demand for others to visit. This three-way relationship between resident-visitor-community in VFR urban travel experiences challenges issues of homogenized neo-liberal tourism development and binary views resident-visitor Heeley, ; Ioannides and Petridou, This is consistent with a shift in demand for post-fordist experiences Mowforth and Munt, ; Page and Hall, , with individualized and authentic experiences that accrue cultural capital Bourdieu, VFR travel and its confluence with immigration may not strictly be a uniquely urban experience, but is predominantly consumed within and affects urban environments Page and Hall, The following section draws together some key predictions that have implications for the rising importance of VFR-related travel for urban communities.
Recent politics in Europe and the USA have seen pushes to slow immigration, but it is difficult to predict to what extent the intent and values that have fueled these political movements will endure and affect global migration into the future. Despite empirical evidence that demonstrates the generally positive impacts of migration on economies, it is vital to note that immigration is experienced differently within a country OECD, Urban areas receive more immigrants, and governments are increasingly seeking ways to either encourage or require newcomers to settle away from the large metropolises to smaller urban areas OECD, It is likely, therefore, that the overall volume of immigration will not be diminished in the future, but newcomers may be dispersed to a greater number of smaller urban centers.
This will see VFR demand to a greater number of urban centers grow, both from source countries, but also between cities as immigrants travel domestically to visit each other. This changing political environment is also creating instability for the travel industries. For some, movement is increasingly restricted, and for others the desire for travel is reduced.
Further, knowing a local as a host may help visitors feel extended comfort and security knowing they are being guided by someone they trust. The stronger the attachment to a destination the easier it is to convert potential visitors to actual, and personal connections with resident friends and relatives can be a powerful attraction and reason for repeat visits Ashworth and Page, In these increasingly politically uncertain times may prove an important and stable source of demand for urban centers. As family members are often distant, it is not just demand for broadly speaking leisure-based travel, but mobility that enables the performance of social roles and exchange of social capital.
For example, increasing numbers are living longer and healthier, and for grandparents to provide child care, they must now travel to do so. In many communities the number of people living alone has also increased, and due to advances in medicine and quality of life there are likely to be a growing number of people who will live alone in their older years, another predictor that VFR demand will remain and grow as people seek quality time and interaction with their distant loved ones Hall and Ogden, ; Ortman et al. In addition, as the middle classes of many nations grow, particularly India and China, the context of strong family ties and immigration hold particular interest and implications for VFR travel from and within these new economies Backer and King, Although not specific for urban areas, as cities expand and become more diverse the demand and opportunities for these types of travel experiences, and the multi-purpose travel opportunities they bring, will rise accordingly.
Looking even further ahead beyond the immediate future and potential impact of current immigration policies and environments is the changing world order. Many countries that are the source for much emigration around the world are also seeing a rising middle class and economic development, which are stimulating outbound tourism Webster and Ivanov, Whereas the potential for vacation- and business-related travel has been often considered Mariani et al. Cities that have been traditional destinations for immigrants from these developing economies and who already see cultural connections are likely to see a growing demand for VFR-related travel as middle classes increase.
It is possible that in the future, unless significant changes in technology are made, excessive air travel could become less socially acceptable, more expensive and restricted. If this happens, VFR demand will become a much higher proportion of all travel. Cities with immigrants will likely become hubs for VFR visitors as distant friends and relatives use their limited air travel to see each other.
Regions around cities that are accessible by other forms of transport could become more appealing as leisure destinations for urban VFR visitors and their hosts. Visitors in general are increasingly seeking multi-destination trip experiences for the variety, efficiency, and reduced risk of dissatisfaction Lue et al. If long-haul travel becomes limited or restricted, this type of multi-destination trip will become more prevalent.
There are important implications for urban tourism practitioners. Initially, urban DMOs need to view tourism within the context of their communities. Even if the promotion of traditional leisure and convention tourism is the priority, viewing these travel patterns in isolation from other mobility flows is short-sighted. Urban DMOs should engage and work with other agencies that promote the destination reputation and image to other groups, whether this be trade missions, universities seeking international students, or other government agencies with international connections.
The role of DMOs is shifting from marketing to communication Heeley, and developing long-term awareness among all forms of mobility is vital. As an ever increasing proportion of residents are newcomers, the services, information and experiences they seek will overlap those traditionally provided for tourists. Traditional tourism marketing and services therefore have a substantial role to play in helping attract and integrate new residents. Conversely, engaging new residents has implications for tourism promotion and activity. A community with happy and engaged residents develops culture and a spirit of hospitality making it an appealing place to visit.
Helping newcomers feel settled should be of primary interest to many agencies, but should also be important for urban DMOs regarding the image and reputation of their community. Urban tourism practitioners should therefore be concerned with the quantity and quality of VFR-related experiences that happen in their community, and the actual and potential influence they have in furthering the destination image and awareness through personal and online networks. Policy makers and marketers should consider tourism not just as a promotion and development of experiences for outsiders, but also from a cultural development perspective Edwards et al.
DMOs should partner with settlement agencies and companies, welcoming newcomers, encouraging them to invite and host friends and relatives. Populations are different from one city to another, but identifying the types of relationships that residents have with their distant networks, and who those networks include, will provide valuable insight into how experiences of the destination are produced and disseminated through WOM marketing.
This discussion offers some insights into the future of urban tourism. Simply put, cities are receiving more immigrants, from more places, for varying amounts of time, who are first exploring the city as newcomers, and hosting friends and relatives. When immigrants settle, their collective activity, behavior, and influence in turn affect the culture and tourism offerings made available for other visitors and residents alike.
Their neighborhoods, restaurants and festivals, for example, often become tourist attractions. VFR is important for cities; first, it brings more people to the destination. Second, it spreads authentic WOM marketing. Third, it encourages residents to become familiar, engaged with or refresh their attachment and awareness of their community as a place to explore and spend leisure, co-creating experiences and culture that affect the experiences of other tourists. Finally, the long-term impacts of hosting for immigrants are likely to make them feel more comfortable and settled.
The future of urban tourism will see the blurring of resident-visitor continue, and immigrant hybrid culture will offer distinct culture and narratives for cities. Urban DMOs need to better identify and feature cultural assets resulting from immigrant populations, but need to remain true to the authentic voice of the local communities; and understanding and engaging VFR and the relationship between residents and visitors will help. Andrades , L.